* Skepticism: The idea that nothing can ever be known for certain. * Sophists: A wise and informed person, critical of traditional mythology, rejected "fruitless" philosophical speculations. A member of a school of ancient Greek professional philosophers who were expert in and taught the skills of rhetoric, argument, and debate, but were criticized for specious reasoning. * Socratic Irony: Feign Ignorance, or pretend to be dumber than really are to expose the weaknesses of people's thinking * “One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing” * “He knows what good is will do good”
* Plato (428-347 B. C. Athens, Greece): Student of Socrates. Established 'The Academy'. Wrote Dialogues. He was a Dualist. * Two parts to a human: Body & Soul
* Plato regarded the body and soul as separate entities * A person may crave or have an appetite for something, yet resist the craving with willpower. A correctly operating soul requires the highest part, reason, to control the lowest part, appetite, with assistance from the will. * Plato believed that though the body dies and disintegrates, the soul continues to live forever. After the death of the body, the soul migrates to what Plato called the realm of the pure forms. There, it exists without a body, contemplating the forms. After a time, the soul is reincarnated in another body and returns to the world. But the reincarnated soul retains a dim recollection of the realm of forms and yearns for it * Theory of ideas/forms: the reality behind the material world, which contains the eternal and immutable “patterns” behind the various phenomena, we come across in nature. * Plato believed that everything tangible in nature flows. There are no substances that do not dissolve, and so everything is made of a timeless "mold" or "form" that is eternal and immutable. * Eternal: Lasting or existing forever; without end or beginning. * Immutable: Unable to be changed
* Form (Ideas): A form is an abstract property or quality. Take any property of an object; separate it from that object and consider it by itself, and you are contemplating a form. For example, if you separate the roundness of a basketball from its color, its weight, etc. and consider just roundness by itself, you are thinking of the from of roundness. * The forms are transcendent. This means that they do not exist in space and time. A material object, a basketball, exists at a particular place at a particular time. A form, roundness, does not exist at any place or time. * Pure - the forms only exemplify one property. Material objects are impure; they combine a number of properties such as blackness, circularity, and hardness into one object. * Archetypes - The forms are archetypes; that is, they are perfect examples of the property that they exemplify. The forms are the perfect models upon which all material objects are based. The form of redness, for example, is red, and all red objects are simply imperfect * Ultimately Real - The forms are the ultimately real entities, not material objects. All material objects are copies or images of some collection of forms; their reality comes only from the forms. * Causes - The forms are the causes of all things. * They provide the explanation of why any thing is the way it is * They are the source or origin of the being of all things * Systematically Interconnected - The forms comprise a system leading down from the form of the Good moving from...