Howard C. Ansel, PhD
Professor and Dean Emeritus College of Pharmacy University of Georgia Athens, Georgia
Acquisitions Editor: John Goucher Managing Editor: Matt Hauber Director of Nursing Production: Helen Ewan Senior Managing Editor/Production: Erika Kors Senior Production Editor: Marian Bellus Designer: Holly McLaughlin Manufacturing Coordinator: Margie Orzech Production Services/Compositor: Maryland Composition/ASI 13th Edition Copyright 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Copyright 2006, 2001, 1996, 1991, 1986 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including as photocopies or scanned-in or other electronic copies, or utilized by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copyright owner, except for brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U.S. government employees are not covered by the above-mentioned copyright. To request permission, please contact Lippincott Williams & Wilkins at 530 Walnut Street, Philadelphia PA 19106, via email at permissions @ lww.com or via website at lww.com (products and services). This textbook is intended to provide the underpinnings of the methods used in pharmaceutical calculations. The drugs, drug products, formulas, equations, uses, and doses are included in this textbook for the sole purpose of providing examples in the types of calculations described. The information is not intended for use in any practice or clinical application, nor should it be considered or construed as specific for any individual patient nor as a substitute for current drug package inserts. The author, editors, and publisher make no warranty, express or implied, with regard to the contents and use of this publication and are not responsible, as a matter of product liability, negligence, or otherwise, for any injury resulting from any material contained herein. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in China First Edition, 1945 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ansel, Howard C., 1933Pharmaceutical calculations / Howard C. Ansel.—13th ed. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-58255-837-0 1. Pharmaceutical arithmetic. I. Title. [DNLM: 1. Drug Dosage Calculations. 2. Dosage Forms. 3. Drug Compounding—methods. 4. Prescriptions, Drug. 5. Weights and Measures. QV 748 A618p 2010] RS57.S86 2010 615′.1401513—dc22 2008045672 Care has been taken to confirm the accuracy of the information presented and to describe generally accepted practices. However, the authors, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information in this book and make no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the currency, completeness, or accuracy of the contents of the publication. Application of this information in a particular situation remains the professional responsibility of the practitioner; the clinical treatments described and recommended may not be considered absolute and universal recommendations. The authors, editors, and publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accordance with the current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any change in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new or frequently...