1. Define the signs of adverse reactions- iatrogenic and idiosyncratic reactions
*Adverse reactions- any unexpected, unintended or excessive response to a medication given at therapeutic dosages (opposed to an overdose)
*Latrogenic- an adverse reaction caused by the actions of a prescriber, healthcare professional, or other specific treatment
*Idiosyncratic- an adverse reaction that is abnormal/unexpected to a medication (other than an allergic) that is peculiar to the individual 2. Steps of the nursing process- what is done by the nurse in each phase
*Assessment-Collect data, review, analyze objective (senses)&subjective (patient description) data
*Diagnosis-what is wrong with the patient and why("as evidenced by")
*Planning- goals, outcome criteria, time frame, must be objective and realistic
*implementation-Taking steps needed to reach goal set forth by the patient.
*Evaluation-Have the goals been met? Evaluation of progress made 3. Factors involved with the timing of drug dosages- with relationship to meals
*pay attention to order, medication directions (effects of the drugs in relation to meals), patients current condition, caution to possible interactions 4. Define terms –
* bioavailability- A measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug & route (0-100%)
*synergistic effect- interactions that effect the combination of 2 or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the effects of the drugs given alone
*bioequivalent-2 medications have the same bioavailability &same concentration of active ingredient(generic VS name brand) 5. Define adverse drug reactions with relationship to drug allergies
*Adverse drug reaction is an allergic reaction to a drug that involves the patients immune system. Immunoglobulin's recognize the drug as a dangerous foreign substance, which trigger an immune response by binding to the drug in an attempt to neutralize it. Also, various chemical mediators (histamine) begin to cause inflammatory response 6. Define and describe the First Pass Effect in relation to the route of medications
*First pass effect- the metabolism of a drug & its passage from the liver before reaching the systemic circulation. A drug given orally may be extensively metabolized by the liver before reaching the systemic circulation 7. Describe factors in drug pharmacokinetics-
i. enteral route- route in which the drug is absorbed into the systemic circulation through the mucosa of the stomach and/or small/large intestine
ii. parenteral route- Route in which the drug is absorbed into the circulation by means OTHER THAN THE GI TRACT ( most common is in the form of injection (IV, IM, subcut, ID, intrarterially, intra-thecally, intra-articularly)
iii. topical route- applying the drug to various body surfaces (delivers drug over long period of time (skin, eyes, nose, lungs, rectum, vagina)
* distribution- the transport of a drug by the bloodstream to its site of action. Area with high blood concentration get distribution first.
i.albumin is the most common blood protein that carries the majority or
protein bound drug molecules.
*metabolism-Biochemical alteration of a drug into an inactive metabolite, a more soluble compound or more potent metabolite, or less active metabolite
* excretion- the elimination of drugs from the body. Primary organs-kidneys.
Others are liver and bowel 8. Define and describe enzyme action and receptor action in pharmacodynamics
*Receptor Action-Selective joining of the drug molecule with a reactive site of a cell or tissue. A drug becomes bound to the receptor through the formation of chemical bonds between receptors on the cell and active sites on the drug molecule.
Agonist- a drug binds to stimulates the activity of one or more receptors
in the body
Antagonist (inhibitors)- a drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of
one or more receptors in the body *Enzyme Action- occurs when the drug...
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