Personality Theories

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Personality Theories – Ch. 12
Assigned Readings: pg. 20, “Social Psychology & Cross-Cultural Psychology”; 383, “Revealing Who We Really Are”; pg. 398, “Murray’s Personological Approach”; pg. 407, “Can Personality Change”; pgs. 414 – 415, “The Type A/ Type B Behavior Pattern”

I. Personality (pgs. 384) - an individual's unique and relatively _______________ patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions; consistent behavioral traits; general style of interacting with the world

A. Urich et al. 1963 study:

II. Historical perspectives:
A. Galen's humor theory - relative concentrations of four humors or bodily fluids are responsible for personality traits 1. Blood – Sanguine

2. Phlegm – Phlematic

3. Yellow bile – Choleric

4. Black bile – Melancholic

B. Gall's phrenology –

III. Trait Theories of Personality (pgs. 393 – 397)
C. Trait Theories
1.What is the difference between a trait and a state?

2. Is your personality stable or does it change as you age?

3. Is your personality inherited?

D. Allport’s Trait Theory –

5. Secondary traits –

6. Central traits –

7. Cardinal trait –

E. Eysenck’s Trait Theory –

1. Psychoticism -

2. Extroversion –

3.Neurotism -

F. The "Big Five": (Chart pg. 395, fig. 12.4; online assessment on BB) 8. Openness –

9. Conscientiousness –

10. Extroversion –

Introversion –

11. Agreeableness –

12. Neuroticism -

E. Do animals have personalities?
1. Study by Gosling & John

2. Do dogs and owners have similar personalities?

F.Criticisms of Trait Theories:

IV. Freud's theory of personality (pgs. 383 – 389):
G. Three levels of consciousness
13. conscious mind - thoughts/ motives currently aware of

14. preconscious mind – anything that is not part of current thoughts but can easily be brought to mind

15. unconscious mind - thoughts, memories, and motives blocked from normal awareness

H. Freudian slip – an error in speech, memory, or physical action that is believed to be caused by the unconscious

I. Structures of the Personality –
16. Id - innate (inborn) biological instincts and urges a. Pleasure principle - seeks immediate pleasure, demands immediate gratification of needs regardless of the consequences in order to relieve tension b. instincts

(1) life instincts – drives for self-preservation and sex

(2) death instincts – drives for aggressive and self-destructive

17. Ego – rationale part of the psyche; responsible for planning, problem-solving and reasoning c. Reality principle - delays gratification until practical and appropriate 18. Superego - incorporates parental and social standards about right and wrong d. morality principle - results in feelings of guilt when rules are violated

e. Represents our conscience
Examples of how they all 3 work together:

J. Defense mechanisms (chart on pg. 386, fig. 12.2) - distort reality *List examples for each
19. Repression - prevents painful, unacceptable thoughts from entering consciousness

20. Regression - responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an early age or level of development

21. Denial- protect oneself from unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it

22. Reaction formation - behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings

23. Projection - transferring unacceptable motives or impulses to others

24. Rationalization - substituting socially acceptable excuses for unacceptable behaviors or thoughts

25....
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