Personality Theories – Ch. 12
Assigned Readings: pg. 20, “Social Psychology & Cross-Cultural Psychology”; 383, “Revealing Who We Really Are”; pg. 398, “Murray’s Personological Approach”; pg. 407, “Can Personality Change”; pgs. 414 – 415, “The Type A/ Type B Behavior Pattern”
Personality (pgs. 384) - an individual's unique and relatively _______________ patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions; consistent behavioral traits; general style of interacting with the world
A. Urich et al. 1963 study:
Galen's humor theory - relative concentrations of four humors or bodily fluids are responsible for personality traits 1. Blood – Sanguine
2. Phlegm – Phlematic
3. Yellow bile – Choleric
4. Black bile – Melancholic
Gall's phrenology –
Trait Theories of Personality (pgs. 393 – 397)
What is the difference between a trait and a state?
Is your personality stable or does it change as you age?
Is your personality inherited?
Allport’s Trait Theory –
Secondary traits –
Central traits –
Cardinal trait –
Eysenck’s Trait Theory –
F. The "Big Five": (Chart pg. 395, fig. 12.4; online assessment on BB) 8.
Do animals have personalities?
1. Study by Gosling & John
2. Do dogs and owners have similar personalities?
Criticisms of Trait Theories:
Freud's theory of personality (pgs. 383 – 389):
Three levels of consciousness
conscious mind - thoughts/ motives currently aware of
preconscious mind – anything that is not part of current thoughts but can easily be brought to mind
unconscious mind - thoughts, memories, and motives blocked from normal awareness
Freudian slip – an error in speech, memory, or physical action that is believed to be caused by the unconscious
I. Structures of the Personality –
Id - innate (inborn) biological instincts and urges a.
Pleasure principle - seeks immediate pleasure, demands immediate gratification of needs regardless of the consequences in order to relieve tension b.
life instincts – drives for self-preservation and sex
death instincts – drives for aggressive and self-destructive
Ego – rationale part of the psyche; responsible for planning, problem-solving and reasoning c.
Reality principle - delays gratification until practical and appropriate 18.
Superego - incorporates parental and social standards about right and wrong d.
morality principle - results in feelings of guilt when rules are violated
Represents our conscience
Examples of how they all 3 work together:
Defense mechanisms (chart on pg. 386, fig. 12.2) - distort reality *List examples for each
Repression - prevents painful, unacceptable thoughts from entering consciousness
Regression - responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an early age or level of development
Denial- protect oneself from unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it
Reaction formation - behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings
Projection - transferring unacceptable motives or impulses to others
Rationalization - substituting socially acceptable excuses for unacceptable behaviors or thoughts
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