Cyrus the Great: established a massive Persian empire across the northern Middle East and into northwestern India by 550 B.C.E; successor state to Mesopotamian empires. Zoroastrianism: Animist religion hat saw material existence as battle between forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; righteous lived on after death in “House of Song”; chief religion of Persian Empire.
Olympic Games: one of the pan-helenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations. Peloponnesian Wars: Wars from 431 to 404 BCE between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve political unification of Greece. Pericles: Athenian political leader during 5th century B.C.E; guided development of Athenian Empire; died during early stages of Peloponnesian War. Phillip II of Macedon: Ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 BCE; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece, which was later subjected to Macedonian authority. Hellenistic Period: That culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms. Alexandra (the Great): Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered Persian empire prior to his death in 323 BCE; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures. Alexandria: One of the many cities of that name founded by Alexander the Great; site of ancient Mediterranean's greatest library; center of literary studies. Direct (True) Democracy: Literally rule of the people; as interpreted by Athens, all decisions emanated from popular assembly without intermediation of elected representatives. Aristotle: Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world. Stoics: Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated...
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