Periodization of Rizal

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  • Topic: Philippines, José Rizal, Philippine Revolution
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PERIODIZATION AND KEY EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF
JOSE PROTACIO MERCADO RIZAL ALONZO Y REALONDA

* Sociological Imagination, C. Wright Mills: an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society (History + Biography + Social Structure)

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FORMATIVE YEARS: 1861 – 1882
The Family
* Rizal Family: one of the biggest families during their time / principalia class * Mercado: real surname adopted in 1731 by Domingo Lamco (paternal great great grandfather of Jose Rizal) * Rizal: second surname given by a Spanish alcalde mayor of Laguna, who was a family friend * Mercado-Rizal family: Japanese, Spanish, Malay and even Negrito blood aside from Chinese * Jose Rizal: 19 June 1861, 7th child

* Parents: Francisco Mercado / Teodora Alonso
* Siblings: Saturnina, Paciano, Narcisa, Olympia, Lucia, Maria, Concepcion, Josefa, Trinidad, Soledad

The Rizal Home
* One of the distinguished stone houses in Calamba
* By day, it hummed with the noises of children at play and the songs of birds in the garden * By night, it echoed with the dulcet notes of family prayers

Childhood Years in Calamba
* Childhood Memories: (1) happy days in the family garden when he was three years old, (2) daily Angelus prayer, (3) nocturnal walk in town, (4) Death of Little Concha * First teacher of Rizal was his mother (age 3: alphabet and prayers) * Age of five: (1) read the Spanish Bible, (2) made sketches with his pencil, (3) mould objects in clay and wax * The Story of the Moth – made the profoundest impression on Rizal (“died a martyr to its illusions”) * Influences: (1) hereditary influence, (2) environmental influence, (3) aide of Divine Providence PERSON| INFLUENCE ON RIZAL|

Jose Alberto – studies for 11 years in British School in Calcutta and traveled in Europe| artistic ability| Manuel Alberto – a husky and athletic man| physical strength| Gregorio Alberto – a book lover| reading of good books| Fr. Leoncio Lopez – old and learned Parish priest of Calamba| love for scholarship and intellectual honesty|

Early Education in Calamba and Biñan
* Private Tutors: Maestro Celestino, Maestro Lucas Padua and Leon Monroy * 1870, Biñan: Justiniano Aquino Cruz (Latin and Spanish) / Juancho Carrera (free lesson in Painting) * “the favorite painters of the class” because of his artistic skills, together with his classmate Jose Guevarra * December 17, 1870 – Rizal left the Biñan riding the steamer Talim (he was watched by Arturo Camps, Frenchman friend of Rizal’s Father

GOM-BUR-ZA Martyrdom
* 17 February 1872: execution of Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora in Bagumbayan (linked with Cavite Mutiny, 20 January 1872) * “Filibustero” – person/s who do not follow the law/rules of the government * The martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za inspired Rizal to fight the evils of Spanish tyranny and redeem his oppressed people * Rizal dedicated the El Filibusterismo to Gom-Bur-Za

Imprisonment of Teodora Alonzo
* As the mother of a perceived enemy of the Spanish authorities, she was often made a target * 1871: Mother was imprisoned in Sta. Cruz, Laguna (2 and a half years) * Poisoned the wife of her cousin Jose Alberto

Ateneo and the Jesuits
* First used the surname “Rizal”
* Escuela Pia Ateneo Municipal de Manila Ateneo de Manila * Fr. Margin Fernando (college registrar), refused to admit Rizal: (1) late for registration, (2) sickly and undersized for his age * Manuel Xerex Burgos: because of him, Rizal was admitted in Ateneo * Jesuit system of education: trained the character of students by rigid discipline and religious instructions * Fr. Jose Bech: Rizal’s first professor in Ateneo

* To improve his Spanish, he took private lessons in Santa Isabel College PERSON/BOOK| INFLUENCE ON RIZAL|
The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas| First favorite novel of...
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