Pekn 2p91 Study Notes

Topics: Social class, Working class, Middle class Pages: 18 (3525 words) Published: March 12, 2013
Physical Culture in Early Canada: First Nations and Colonists

First Nations
* Limited historical information
* Oral accounts
* Oral tradition (memories and stories from elders) passed down the generations * Elders had important role in education
* Written records
* Second-hand observations of colonizers (French/English) * Written by white men, severely biased
* Explorers, fur traders, priests, etc.,
* Generalizations made despite striking differences in North American Indians * Eurocentric views: a tendency to interpret other cultures with Western European cultural biases * Often devalues other cultures, traditions, values, religious beliefs * E.g., Gambling – redistribution of wealth vs. grave evil

* Early missionaries considered game crude, dangerous and chaotic * National Lacrosse Association:
* 1867 classed white teams as amateurs and Indian teams as professionals * Expulsion of Indian teams in 1880
* Explanation: to rid games of violence and professionalism * Historians often fail to document how race/racism was a major factor in these restrictions * Indigenous games had purposes: taught values and education (honesty, courage, respect, personal excellence)

Cultural Relativism
* The worth of any culture is judged only in terms of its own cultural and ethical principles, not by any universal standard

What is known and examples:
* Northern athletes: head pull, airplane – pushing pain limits * Head, finger or stick pull, high kick, snow snake, airplane, running races, moose-skin ball (women), shinny * Social cohesion, cultural sharing, and exchange of goods between peoples: * Males wrestling as greeting (before European handshake) * Song and dance

* Blanket toss; lacrosse

Inuit of Artic Sport: games had to be highly portable and meaningful 1. Survival on the land
* Games of strength and endurance
* Resistance to pain
* Survival skills
2. Education for life on the land
* Games in children’s education/children’s training
3. Gatherings
* Sharing and celebrations
Inuit Games/Sport and Survival
* Skills developed by these games were necessary for everyday survival in the harsh environment * Blanket toss
* Made from seal or walrus skins
* The winner is the person who bounces the highest
* Games of pain and endurance: important to ignore pain and discomfort to be able to work and survive * Mouth pull: 2 people pull on each others mouth until someone drops out * Earpull, knuckle hop

* Boxing Match (in the North)
* Taking turns hitting each other on the chest, shoulders, temple, or eye – no blocking punches * The boxer who was unable to endure the pain any longer dropped out and lost the round, the winner faced a new challenger.

1. Artic Winter Games
2. Northern Games
3. Trappers Festival
4. North American Indigenous Games
* Keep traditions alive
* Promote sport
* Anchors and re-cultures young people

King Trapper Event
* Tree felling, wood cutting, wood splitting, canoe packing, flour packing, trap setting, muskrat skinning, tea boiling, bannock baking, moose calling, goose calling, etc. * Competitors must enter at least 19 out of 21 events

* Contest is based on points system

The Aboriginal Sport Circle (ASC)
* Canada’s national voice for Aboriginal sport: First Nations, Inuit and Metis peoples * 1995: created for more accessible and equitable sport and recreation opportunities for Aboriginal peoples * Less indigenous professional athletes, ASC tries to address this

North American Indigenous Games
* Every 3 years
* Celebrate cultural heritage and sporting achievements
* Time period after these games often drops suicide rates, otherwise high suicide rates * All sport events are cultural...
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