Pediatric Community – Acquired Pneumonia
Rivera, Geraldine U.
Rodicol, Arsenio A.
Serrano, Marian Joyce E.
Tumamao, Jayson G.
Vidad, Angelica B.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of several diseases in which individuals who have not recently been hospitalized develop an infection of the lungs (pneumonia). CAP is a common illness and can affect people of all ages. CAP often causes problems like difficulty in breathing, fever, chest pains, and a cough. CAP occurs because the areas of the lung which absorb oxygen (alveoli) from the atmosphere become filled with fluid and cannot work effectively. *
CAP occurs throughout the world and is a leading cause of illness and death. Causes of CAP include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. CAP can be diagnosed by symptoms and physical examination alone, though x-rays, examination of the sputum, and other tests are often used. Individuals with CAP sometimes require treatment in a hospital. CAP is primarily treated with antibiotic medication. Some forms of CAP can be prevented by vaccination. *
Community Acquired Pneumonia in the pediatric age is a disease clinically characterized by the presence of signs and symptoms of pneumonia due to an infection acquired outside the hospital. *
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. It is also called Pneumonitis or Bronchopneumonia. Pneumonia can be a serious threat to our health. Although pneumonia is a special concern for older adults and those with chronic illnesses, it can also strike young, healthy people as well. It is a common illness that affects thousands of people each year in the Philippines, thus, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. *
The only case-control study on risk factors for CAP in developed countries is the Finnish Study (Heiskanen-Kosma, et al. 1997) which found the risk factors for CAP <5 years old children were recurrent respiratory (RRI) during the previous 12 mos. And the history of episodes of wheezing or otitis media treated by tympanocentesis during the first 2 years of life. For the 5-15 age group, such as risk factors were RRI’s during the previous year and the positive history for wheezing episodes. In temperate climates, pneumonia is more common in cold months, presumably reflecting not only an enhanced person-to-person droplet spread of respiratory pathogens due to crowding but also a diminished host resistance due to impaired mucociliary clearance from dry indoor and cold outdoor air (Durbin & Stille 2008). Children from low socioeconomic levels, those who suffer from underlying chronic disease (e.g sickle cell disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, gastroesophageal reflux, asthma, cystic fibrosis, Congenital Heart Diseases, immunodeficiency syndromes, neuromuscular diseases, seizure disorder) and those who are exposed to cigarette smoking, are at the higher risk for acquiring pneumonia ( Durbin & Stille 2008).
* Facts about pneumonia:
* Pneumonia can occur year round, but is usually seen in the fall, winter, and early spring. * People who are older than 65 or less than two years of age are at greater risk for acquiring this infection. * There is an increased chance of developing pneumonia in a crowded area. * Types of pneumonia
The main types of pneumonia are:
* bacterial pneumonia - caused by various bacteria. The streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterium that causes bacterial pneumonia.
Many other bacteria may cause bacterial pneumonia including: * Group B streptococcus (most common in newborns)
* Staphylococcus aureus
* Group A streptococcus (most common in children over age 5) Bacterial pneumonia may have a quick onset and the following symptoms may occur: * productive cough
* pain in the chest
* vomiting or diarrhea
* decrease in appetite
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