Peace Treaties

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PEACE TREATIES.

a) What military restrictions did the Treaty of Versailles impose on Germany? [5] * No conscriptions
* Prevented from forming a military alliance with Austria * 100,000 men in the army and they had to be volunteers
* No aircraft, submarines or armed vehicles
* Only allowed 6 battleships
* Rhineland became a DMZ

b) Why did the Big Three disagree over how to treat Germany? [7] * They were three strong personalities that had different aims * All three of them had their own country’s interests at mind

* Georges Clémenceau lived through two German invasions and all the destruction that came with it * Naturally, Georges Clémenceau wanted revenge for France * German land and industry had not been as badly damaged as France’s * Georges Clémenceau was tired of France being ‘bullied’ and humiliated by Germany and wanted to put a stop to it * Georges Clémenceau was under a lot of public pressure

* Georges Clémenceau aimed to cripple Germany, regain Alsace-Lorraine, gain reparations and enforce disarmament in Germany

* Woodrow Wilson was an idealist whose aim was to build a better and more peaceful world from the ruins of the World War * Woodrow Wilson knew very little about European relations * The USA was the only country that was not greatly affected by fighting in the World War * Woodrow Wilson did not have the same hatred towards Germany as Clémenceau did * Woodrow Wilson aimed to gain democracy including open diplomacy, self determination for the people of Eastern Europe, free access to the seas and free trade

* Britain, like France felt strongly that Germany was responsible for the war * Like Clémenceau, David Lloyd George was under a lot of public pressure to deal with Germany severely * However, he did not have the passionate hatred towards Germany that Clémenceau possessed * David Lloyd George wanted Germany to be justly punished but not too harshly so that there would be no risk of Germany seeking revenge in the future and possibly starting another war * No fighting took place on British soil

* David Lloyd George aimed for disarmament in Germany in order to ensure Britain’s naval supremacy, gain reparations, gain German East African colonies and restart trade with Germany c) How far could the Treaty be justified at the time? Explain your answer. [8]

Justified:
* Reparations were a fairly normal punishment. Every country that lost a war was expected to pay reparations. * The part of the War Guilt that stated Germany was to blame for starting the war. * Forms of disarmament forced on the losing country were common. * Germans were operating a double-standard. Their call for fairer treatment did not square with the harsh way they had treated Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litvosk in 1918. Versailles was much less harsh

Not Justified:
* The amount that the reparations demanded was inhumane (£6600 million). Cripple the German economy. * The part of the War Guilt that stated Germany was to be blamed for all the damage that the World War caused. Other countries caused damage as well. Without the other countries, the war would not have been hard to win and the extent of damage would have been less severe. * 100,000 men in the army were not enough for a big country like Germany. Unable to defend the country. Left it defenseless. * Unfair distribution of the severity of punishments. Germany received by far the harshest punishments. Bulgaria barely punished. All the countries were at fault.

Even though the fact that punishments were imposed on Germany was justified, the severity and harshness of the punishments were unjust.

b) Why did Clémenceau demand that a harsh peace be imposed on Germany? [7] * Georges Clémenceau lived through two German invasions. He had a traumatic past and naturally wanted to ensure that France never be harmed, humiliated and ‘bullied’ by German ever again....
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