Pe 220 Notes Exam 2

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PE 220 EXAM 2 NOTE Cards

Term
Which of the following is an amphipathic molecule?
Definition
integral membrane protein
Term
If the direction of the net flux of an ion is against its electrochemical gradient, then that transport is passive. Definition
False
Term
Of the gradients listed below, which is the most accurate description of the force that ultimately determines the movement of ions across the membrane? Definition
Electrochemical gradient
Term
Which of the following pairs of characteristics is more likely to make a substance diffuse through the cell membrane? Definition
small, non-polar molecule
Term
In facilitated diffusion, ________.
Definition
a molecule is moved with its concentration gradient with the assistance of a protein carrier molecule, and no energy is required Term
What organelle synthesizes most of the ATP used by cells?
Definition
mitochondria
Term
Where is the genetic code stored?
Definition
nucleus
Term
When molecules are passively transported across a membrane, the direction of their movement is dictated by the molecule's tendency to move ________. Definition
from higher to lower energy
Term
Which of the following is an example of an endogenous fat from an exogenous source? Definition
triglycerides
Term
Which of the following organelles is specialized for lipid and steroid synthesis? Definition
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Term
What organelle packages proteins into secretory vesicles?
Definition
Golgi apparatus
Term
Molecules with a relatively high lipid solubility are capable of crossing the membrane ________.

Definition
directly across the lipid bilayer
Term
Anabolism describes the breakdown of large molecules to smaller molecules. Definition
False
Term
In facilitated diffusion, the carrier protein has equal affinity for the molecule being transported on both sides of the membrane. Definition
True
Term
When proteins are synthesized by ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where does the translation begin? Definition

cytosol
Term
The concentration of an anion inside a cell is 0.3%. The concentration of this anion outside the cell is 0.1%. How could the cell obtain more of this ion outside the cell? Definition
passive transport
Term
The sodium proton exchanger is an example of a(n) ______.

Definition

antiporter
Term
Which of the following transport mechanisms requires energy? Definition

both primary and secondary active transport
Term
Endocrine glands secrete neurohormones
Definition
False
Term
In secondary active transport with sodium, which of the following is FALSE? Definition
The molecule being transported moves down its electrochemical gradient. Term
Primary active transporters are similar to carriers, with the exception that they are able to use energy to move ions against their electrochemical gradient. Definition
True
Term
Receptors for lipophilic chemical messengers are only located on the surface of a cell's membrane.

Definition
False
Term
What is a molecule that is similar in structure to a messenger and binds with that messenger's receptor to stimulate a response from the target cell called?

Definition

agonist
Term
Which type of chemical messenger is released into the bloodstream by an endocrine gland where it can affect target cells throughout the body? Definition

hormone
Term
Vesicles formed during phagocytosis or endocytosis often fuse with the membrane of which of the following organelles? Definition
lysosome
Term
Which type of chemical messenger is released from the axon terminal of a neuron and directly communicates with other cells? Definition
neurotransmitter
Term
Which of the following classes of chemical messengers travels in the bloodstream to the target cell?

Definition
hormone only
Term

Catecholamines are derived from what amino acid?

Definition

tyrosine
Term

Which type of chemical messenger, when released, binds to receptors on the cell that...
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