How are sports injuries classified and managed?
* Ways to classify sports injuries
* Direct and indirect
* Direct injuries are sustained from an external force causing injury at the point of contact, e.g. a hockey player receiving a bruise from being struck on the leg by a stick during a game. * Indirect injuries usually involve the athlete damaging the soft tissues such as the ligaments, tendons or muscles of the body through internal or external forces, e.g. a beach volleyball player overstretching to reach a ball straining a hamstring.
* Soft and hard tissue
* Soft tissue injuries are any injuries to the skin, muscles, tendons and ligaments in our body, e.g. a sprained ankle. They are much more common than hard tissue injuries. * Hard tissue injuries occur in bones and cartilages, e.g. a fracture.
* Overuse injuries are sustained from continuous or repetitive stress, incorrect technique or equipment, or too much training, e.g. tendonitis in the shoulder of a swimmer from excessive amounts of training.
* Soft-tissue injuries
* Tears, sprains, contusions
* Tears, sprains are the most frequently occurring soft tissue injuries in sport and can be classified according to the severity of damage. Contusions are another common soft tissue injury (also known as a bruise) caused by a sudden blow to the body. * Skin abrasions, lacerations,, blisters
* Abrasions, lacerations and blisters are other soft tissue injuries. These are skin trauma caused by force (scraping or friction) to the outside layer of the skin. * Inflammatory response
* When soft tissue is injured, it becomes inflamed but responds by activating a self-healing process known as the inflammatory response. The inflammatory response is the body initial mechanism of tissue repair. Blood and fluids flood the site, causing pain and inflammation but start the repair process.
* management of soft tissue injuries
Immediate treatment and management of soft tissue injuries requires application of the RICER (rest, ice, compression, elevation, referral) principle with the aim of reducing swelling, preventing further damage and easing pain. This will also reduce the recuperation time of the athlete to reduce swelling and restriction of movement.
* Hard-tissue injuries
* There are three main classifications of fractures- simple (closed), compound (open) and complicated (where the bone damages a major nerve, organ or blood vessel). Management of fractures involved immobilising the injured area and following DRABCD (danger, response, airway, breathing, compressions, and defibrillation). * Dislocation
* Dislocations are the displacement of a bone at a joint. Management usually involved ice, elevation and support of the injured area/limb using a bandage followed by immediate medical attention.
* Assessment of injuries
* TOTAPS (talk, observe, touch, active and passive movement, skills test)
How does sports medicine address the demands of specific athletes? * Children and young athletes
* Medical conditions (asthma, diabetes, epilepsy)
* Existing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes and epilepsy impact on the ability of some children to be continually active in sport. Often, specific and individualised strategies can be put in place to ensure the young athlete participates safely in physical activity. It is important to talk to the child's parent or carer before beginning any training or coaching. * Asthma - Children and young athletes who suffer from asthma have different triggers. It is important to know what triggers an individual's asthma attack to ensure appropriate preventative measures can be put in place. Children who are diagnosed with asthma should have an up to date asthma management plan. Anyone associated with training a child with asthma should be aware of the child's personal management plan...