Parts & Functions of the Respiratory System

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Respiratory System Organs and Its Functions

Introduction to the respiratory system organs:
The respiratory system is the system of the human body by which it produces energy needed for life processes. This energy is produced by the breaking down of glucose molecules in all living cells of the human body.

Introduction to the respiratory system organs:
In simple terms, Oxygen taken in to the body through air breathed in is transported to all parts of the body, and it is used in the process of burning of food molecules (that is, breaking down of glucose molecules) at the cellular level in a series of chemical reactions. This breaking down of glucose molecules releases energy in the form of ATP, which can be utilized by the human body in order to carry out essential life processes.

RESPIRATORY ORGANS OF HUMAN

Structures and Functions
The Nose
Structure:
→ septum - made up of cartilage which separates the two nostrils. → nasal chamber
→ Hairs are present in the inner walls of the nostrils.

The Nose
Functions:
→ Air passes in through the nostrils and in to the nasal chamber → The hairs in the inner walls of the nostrils prevent dust particles and other particulate matter present in the air to enter into the nasal chambers. → The inner lining of the nasal chambers is supplied with blood vessels, so it warms up the air passing into the respiratory system organs. → It also has a lining of mucous secretion, so the air traveling inside is also moistened by it. → The mucus lining prevents bacteria and other microorganisms to go further into the human body.

The Pharynx
Structure:
→ It is a wide cavity continuous with the nasal chambers.
→ It is situated at the back of the mouth.
→ It leads into the trachea and the food pipe.
→ A entry to the trachea is protected by a flap called epiglottis.

The Pharynx
Functions:
→ It is a common passage for air and food, as it leads into the trachea (for passage of air) and the food pipe (for passage of food). → It prevents entry of food into the trachea (or the wind pipe) by the functioning of the epiglottis.

The Larynx
Structure:
→ It has a hollow cartilaginous structure located at the base of the pharynx, just at the start of the trachea. → This is the structure that rises and falls when we swallow food. One can feel it in the front part of the neck. → It is in the shape of two ligamentous folds.

The Larynx
Functions:
→ When air is expelled forcibly out through these ligamentous folds, it produces sound. → There are a set of muscles that help control the tension in the vocal cords, and this helps in production of a range of voices.

The Trachea
Structure:
→ This is the wind pipe. It emerges from below the Larynx. → Its walls are made up of C shaped rings of cartilage.

The Trachea
Functions:
→ This is the wind pipe through which air travels in and out of the body. → Its C shaped rings provide strength to the trachea, keep it flexible and distended permanently.

The Bronchi
Structure and Functions:
→ The trachea divides into two tubes which enter each lungs. These are called bronchi (singularly bronchus). → Each bronchi divides into fine tubes called secondary bronchi. The secondary bronchi divide into still smaller tubes called tertiary bronchi. The tertiary bronchi further divide into smaller and finer tubes called Bronchioles. The Bronchioles are 1mm in diameter, and by subsequent division, they form clusters of very tiny air sacs called alveoli. Alveoli have walls that are one cell thick. They are very moist and provide for the diffusion of respiratory gases in and out of the blood stream.

The Lungs
Structure:
→ The lungs are a pair of spongy organs. They are made up of thousands of air sacs. → They are roughly cone shaped.
→ The lungs are lobed, and the right lung has three lobes and the left lung has two lobes. The left lung is slightly smaller than the right lung to accommodate for the heart in between....
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