Outlines Section 1-3

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outlines section 1-3
Concepts/Catching us up to 1877

Section 1

• Scientific Racism

• Categorizing mankind

• Christianity and monogenetics

• polygenetics

• American school of Ethnology

– Samuel George Morton

– Dr. Josiah Nott

• Phrenology

– George Combe

– Popularization: Lorenzo and Orson Fowler

• The Ascendance of the Aryan race ideology

• Count Arthur de Gobineau

– An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1854)

– Great civilizations all Aryan

– Miscegenation

– Source of racial theory for many, including Hitler/NAZIs

• Impact of race theory in the United States by the mid-19th century

• Social Darwinism: A more “scientific” proof

• Sex v. Gender

• Sex: the anatomical/physiological difference between male and female

• Gender: a set of values/beliefs constructed by societies based on perceived differences. Gender system: what men and women SHOULD do and be.

– Gender as prescription

– Gender as a vocabulary of power

– Gender as analytic construct

• Masculine and Feminine

• Remember, one does not have to be sexually male to exhibit masculine gender attributes. Nor does one have to be female to exhibit feminine values.

• Real world example: baby clothes

• The clothesline of gender

• New Ideas about Sex and Gender emerge in the 18th/19th centuries

• “One Sex” v. “Two Sex” models

• A Brief Encapsulation of Women’s status in early America (and beyond)

• Patriarchy

– Society of deference

• Coverture (femme covert)

• While the 19th century saw some decline in patriarchic ideas and in some cases some changes in coverture, these concepts had lasting impact in US History

African-American life in the post-Reconstruction South

Section 2

The Civil War and Reconstruction

• Was the war about slavery?

• Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation (1863)

• The Radical Republican Amendments (13,14,15)

• Reconstruction (1863-77)

• Reconstruction ends, what next?

• The real world impact of race stereotype in the South in the 19th and early 20th centuries

• Spreading race theory and stereotype: the minstrel show

• An enduring genre

• De jure (legal) segregation and discrimination

• Jim Crow laws (Black Codes)

• Application to all racial minorities

• Extralegal racism and discrimination

• Example: Ku Klux Klan


• Lynching

– 1880-1930: conservatively 2500 lynchings of African-Americans

– "Mob violence against African-Americans served four functions within southern society during the lynching era:

• 1. to eradicate specific persons accused of crimes against the white community;

• 2. as a mechanism of state-sanctioned terrorism designed to maintain a degree of leverage over the African-American population;

• 3. to eliminate or neutralize competitors for social, economic, or political rewards; and

• 4. as a symbolic manifestation of the unity of white supremacy"

• Ida Wells-Barnett

• African-American life in the late 19th century South

• Not that much difference from antebellum life

• Low-paying jobs

• Sharecropping (tenant farming)

– Mostly African-American

– Wage slavery

• By the end of the 19th century, old stereotype and prejudice as strong as ever


Section 3

• The Rise of Western Capitalism

• Capitalism: The definitions of capitalism, particularly of the results of the system, are multifold. However, some basic ideas are generally agreed upon.

a. private ownership of property exists,...
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