Chapter 6: Learning
Red – Definition
Blue - Important Points
Green - Important People & Contributions
1. Learning – Any relatively durable Change in Behavior or Knowledge that is due to Experience. 2. Conditioning – Learning Associations between events that occur in an Organisms Environment. 3. Classical Conditioning
a. Phobias – Irrational Fears of specific Objects or Situations. b. Classical Conditioning – Type of Learning in which a Stimulus acquires the Capacity to Evoke a Response that was originally evoked by another Stimulus. c. Ivan Pavlov
i. Pavlovian Conditioning
ii. Pavlov’s Dogs – Prior to Dogs being Fed Meat, a Clicking Noise Occurred. 1. Dogs started Salivating After awhile when the Click Occurred, prior to the Meat being given. 2. Dogs salivated whenever Click happened, even if there was no Meat. 3. Salivating became a Conditioned Association. d. Terminology & Procedures
i. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – A Stimulus that evokes an Unconditional response without previous Conditioning. ii. Unconditioned Response (UCR) – An Unlearned Reaction to an Unconditioned Stimulus that occurs without previous Conditioning. iii. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – A Previously Neutral Stimulus that through Conditioning, can Evoke a Conditioned Response. iv. Conditioned Response (CR) – A Learned Reaction to a Conditioned Stimulus that occurs because of Previous Conditioning. v. Sometimes, The UCR and the CR can be the same thing. vi. Conditioned Reflex – Conditioned Response is relatively Automatic or Involuntary. 1. Happens Gradually.
vii. Trial – Any Presentation of Stimulus or a pair of Stimuli. e. Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
i. Conditioned Fears (Such as Fear of Bridges) ii. Emotional Responses (Such as a Smell reminding you of Someone) iii. Physiological Responses (Such as Sexual Arousal, Drug Tolerance, etc.) f. Basic Processes
i. Acquisition – Initial Stage of Learning Something. 1. Stimulus Contiguity – Acquisition depends on a Stimulus “always” being there. ii. Extinction – The Gradual Weakening and Disappearance of a Conditioned Response Tendency. 1. As the CS is heard repeatedly without the UCS, CS will Extinguish. iii. Rapid, Massed exposures to a Fear-Inducing CS facilitates the Process of Extinction. iv. Spontaneous Recovery – Reappearance of an Extinguished Response after a period of No Exposure to the Conditioned Stimulus. 1. New Response is usually weaker than before. v. Stimulus Generalization – Occurs when an Organism that has learned a Response to a Specific Stimulus Responds in the same way to new Stimulus that are similar to the Original Stimulus. 1. Is Adaptive, Given you rarely see the same Stimulus more than once. 2. John B Watson
a. Little Albert Experiment.
b. The More Similar new Stimuli are to the Original CS, the Greater the Generalization. vi. Stimulus Discrimination – Occurs when an Organism that has learned a Response to a Specific Stimulus does Not Respond in the same way to a new Stimuli that are Similar to the Original Stimulus. 1. The Less Similar new Stimuli are to the Original CS, the greater the Likelihood of Discrimination. vii. Higher-Order Conditioning – A Conditioned Stimulus functions as if it were an Unconditioned Stimulus. 4. Operant Conditioning
a. B. F. Skinner
b. Operant Conditioning – A Form of Learning in which...