Osm Management Theories

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OSM

– Prof. Rajesh Satpathy

Management
Theories

Objective:
To acquire basic understanding on the following schools of
management theories:
>> The Classical Management School
>> The Behavioral Management School
>> The Human Resources Management School
>> The Management Science School

Management
Theories

The practice of management is as old as human civilization. The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome and Indus-vally had the history of good management practices.
However, the study of management in a systematic way as a
distinct body of knowledge is only of recent origin. That is why, management is often described as "oldest of the arts and
youngest of sciences".

Management
Theories

The traditional management practices remained quite stable
through the centuries until the birth of Industrial revolution in the mid 18th century.
Industrial revolution had sown the seeds of modern management as the then industrialists faced many problems, which were
completely unfamiliar to them, in managing the industry.

Management
Theories

Charles Babage, Robert Owen and James Montgomery are among
the notable management thinkers of earlier days. All the earlier theories of management together constitute the Pre-scientific era of management.
Disagreement exists as to the exact number of management
schools. Different writers have identified as few as three and as many as twelve.

Management
Theories
This topic has following five sections.

They are:
1. The Classical Management School
2. The Behavioral Management School
3. The Human Resources Management School
4. The Management Science School

Management
Theories

The Classical Management School:
The twentieth century witnessed tremendous management theory ferment and activity.

Efforts were taking place for the development of a comprehensive management theory. Traditional or classical management school of theory is a result of such efforts.
Henri Fayol (1841-1925) is widely acclaimed as the founder of the Classical Management School.

Management
Theories

The Classical Management School:
Classical Management Theory concentrates on efficiency.
Classical school has three distinct branches, viz. scientific management, bureaucratic management, and administrative
management. It visualize s a pyramid hierarchical structure, autocratic management, clear chain of command and short spans of control.

Management
Theories
Scientific Management:

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)is known as the "father of scientific management". Taylor began work at the age of 18 as a machinist apprentice to a pattern-maker.
He later joined the Midvale Steel Company as a laborer and
became chief engineer in eight years. During his period at the steel mill Taylor performed comprehensive experiments on worker
productivity and tested what he called the "task system" , later developed into the Taylor System and eventually progressed into scientific management.

Management
Theories
Scientific Management:
Scientific management theory analyzes and synthesizes workflow processes and improving labor productivity.
Scientific management is also called Taylorism, the Taylor system, or the Classical Perspective. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management

(1905) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).

Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study of an individual at work.

Management
Theories

Scientific Management:
Taylor's experiments included determining the best way of
performing each work operation, the time it required, materials needed and the work sequence.
He wanted to establish a clear division of labor between
management and employees.

Management
Theories

Following are the...
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