– Prof. Rajesh Satpathy
To acquire basic understanding on the following schools of
>> The Classical Management School
>> The Behavioral Management School
>> The Human Resources Management School
>> The Management Science School
The practice of management is as old as human civilization. The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome and Indus-vally had the history of good management practices.
However, the study of management in a systematic way as a
distinct body of knowledge is only of recent origin. That is why, management is often described as "oldest of the arts and
youngest of sciences".
The traditional management practices remained quite stable
through the centuries until the birth of Industrial revolution in the mid 18th century.
Industrial revolution had sown the seeds of modern management as the then industrialists faced many problems, which were
completely unfamiliar to them, in managing the industry.
Charles Babage, Robert Owen and James Montgomery are among
the notable management thinkers of earlier days. All the earlier theories of management together constitute the Pre-scientific era of management.
Disagreement exists as to the exact number of management
schools. Different writers have identified as few as three and as many as twelve.
This topic has following five sections.
1. The Classical Management School
2. The Behavioral Management School
3. The Human Resources Management School
4. The Management Science School
The Classical Management School:
The twentieth century witnessed tremendous management theory ferment and activity.
Efforts were taking place for the development of a comprehensive management theory. Traditional or classical management school of theory is a result of such efforts.