O’Reilly and Chatman (1996) defined culture as a “system of shared values and norms that define appropriate attitudes and behaviors for organizational members” (p. 160). It notes that when people interact they influence one another’s beliefs, understandings, behaviors, and perceptions of reality. Individual interaction can generate culture. Culture theory is similar to Open Systems theory in a sense that they have similar elements. The systems are social, psychological, management, technical, organizational, and environmental. The author indicated noted that human behavior and culture are the products of more than just social activity and psychological personality. Culture is influenced by the totality of the organizational experience, such as school layout, class periods, nature of instruction, and leadership. Culture is people processes and tools, and cultural leaders must tend the total creature. Essentially as future leaders, we must be mindful of all the issues in our schools, colleges, or universities as this influence the culture. There were 10 characteristics of culture summarized as the following: Observed behavioral regularities when people interactClimate Group normsEmbedded skills
Espoused valuesHabits of thinking
Formal philosophyShared meanings
Rules of the gameRoot metaphors
The chapter highlighted research by Pfeffer (1997) that found relationship between strong cultures and performance does not essentially result in productivity. Kotter and Heskett (1992) state that appropriate culture will not...