Organizational culture and leadership are elements in a school or company that work in conjunction with one another toward organizational success. Both culture and leadership influence how the school or company will function and what will be achieved. Either culture will determine how leadership functions, or leadership will transform the organizational culture so that the culture supports the organizational values.
O’Reilly and Chatman (1996) defined culture as a “system of shared values and norms that define appropriate attitudes and behaviors for organizational members” (p. 160). It notes that when people interact they influence one another’s beliefs, understandings, behaviors, and perceptions of reality. Individual interaction can generate culture. Culture theory is similar to Open Systems theory in a sense that they have similar elements. The systems are social, psychological, management, technical, organizational, and environmental. The author indicated noted that human behavior and culture are the products of more than just social activity and psychological personality. Culture is influenced by the totality of the organizational experience, such as school layout, class periods, nature of instruction, and leadership. Culture is people processes and tools, and cultural leaders must tend the total creature. Essentially as future leaders, we must be mindful of all the issues in our schools, colleges, or universities as this influence the culture. There were 10 characteristics of culture summarized as the following: Observed behavioral regularities when people interact
Climate Group norms
Habits of thinking
Rules of the game
The chapter highlighted research by Pfeffer (1997) that found relationship between strong cultures and performance does not essentially result in productivity. Kotter and Heskett (1992) state that appropriate culture will not...
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