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2. Organizational Dimensions of Information
The Organizational Dimensions of Information includes information flows, information granularity, and what information describes.
A. Information Flows
Information in an organization flows in four directions: up, down, horizontally, and inward/outward. To consider these flows, let’s briefly review the structure of an organization. Most people view a traditional organization as a pyramid with four levels and many sides (see Figure 11). From top to bottom, the levels are: • Strategic management, which provides an organization with overall direction and guidance. • Tactical management, which develops the goals and strategies outlined by strategic management. • Operational management, which manages and directs the day-to-day operations and implementations of the goals and strategies. • Non-management employees, who actually perform daily activities, such as order processing, developing and producing goods and services, and serving customers.
If you consider your collage as an example, strategic management might include the chancellor, president, and various vice presidents. Tactical management would include the deans. Operational management would include the department chairs and directors of academic programs. The final
Management Information Systems (MIS) 2011/2012
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level (Non-management employees) would include instructors who are responsible for teaching your classes.
Figure 11: Structure of traditional organization as a pyramid
Information that flows upward, or the upward flow of information, describes the current state of the organization based on its daily transactions. When a sale occurs, for example, that information originates at the lowest level of the organization that then is passed up through various levels of management. Information that is gathered as a part of everyday operations is consolidated by...