Option 2 describes which approach to bureaucratic control? →| Feedback| | Feedforward|
Feedback control focuses on the use of information about results to correct deviations from the acceptable standard after they arise. When managers point out and correct improper performance, like in Option 2, they are using feedback as a means of control.|
(1) | 2.| At the restaurant where your friend works, the manager has quite a lot of power over the workers. She has the responsibility of scheduling workers and assigning projects during each shift. Employees that have performed poorly on her shifts tend to get scheduled for the unpopular weekend shifts and the worst shift duties. This manager seems to use a high degree of | legitimate power.| | negative power.|
| coercive power.|
| referent power.|
| expert power.|
A leader with coercive power has control over punishments; people comply to avoid those punishments.|
(1) | 3.| Scenario A. Your company has a number of decision makers with very different ideas about the diffusion of technological innovations. This can complicate the decision-making process for your organization. Saul is called "Slow Poke Saul" by his colleagues because he is always the last one to go along with any new technology. Saul's feeling is that most innovations are part of some economic "plot" to take your money for something you don't really need. Jerome is the opposite of Saul! Jerome is the first to try everything; he is an adventurer by nature and believes that even if a new innovation fails, it's worth the risk if you might be the first with a new technology. Lindee and Manuel are well-respected in the organization and their opinion is sought out by their colleagues; they may not be the first to try something, but they are never far behind.
In this scenario, Saul is an example of | a laggard.|
| the late majority.|
| the early majority|
| an early adopter.|
| an innovator.|
A laggard is the last to adopt a given technology. Laggards are often isolated and highly conservative in their views. Laggards are extremely suspicious of innovation and change.|
(1) | 4.| Scenario B. Suppose you have a group of employees whom you find very difficult to motivate. One of them, a young man named Carlos, consistently tells you that he doesn't believe he will ever succeed. He regularly tells his colleagues that "no matter how well I do in this job, I'll never get a raise or promotion." Another named Susan simply doesn't care about any of the rewards that your organization offers and so she says, "it just isn't worth it to me to work that hard!" The third, an employee named Jeannie, feels that she is no longer able to "keep up" in her job, and that she is no longer physically able to do the job, so there is little use in trying.
Susan illustrates which of the following concepts? | High expectancy| | Low instrumentality|
| Negative valence|...