- People's behaviour is based on their perception, not on reality itself
- perception is how individuals select, organize, and interpret their sensory impressions and make sense of their environment
Why we study perceptions?
- to better understand people make attributes about events ( how people interpret events and then react to them or judge them
- we don't see reality we interpret what we see and call it reality
- three factors influencing perception
- the perceiver
- the target (object, event)
- the situation ( context, circumstances)
The are six perceptual errors….
Attribution theory explains how we judge people differently
The theory suggests that when we observe and individuals behaviour we try to determine if: - The cause is internal
- The cause is external
In determining whether behaviour is internally or externally caused, we use three rules.
Distinctiveness- refers to whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations
Consensus - Consider how an individual behaviour compares with others in the same situation.
Consistency - Looks at if the individual act the same way over time
How attributions get distorted: attributions errors
There are errors or biases that distort attributions...
Fundamental attribution error
THe tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgements about others behaviour.
Self serving Bias
The tendency to attribute ones successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests and background, experience, and attitudes
Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic