Organizational Behaviour Notes

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Perception defined.

- People's behaviour is based on their perception, not on reality itself

- perception is how individuals select, organize, and interpret their sensory impressions and make sense of their environment

Why we study perceptions?

- to better understand people make attributes about events ( how people interpret events and then react to them or judge them

- we don't see reality we interpret what we see and call it reality

- three factors influencing perception

- the perceiver

- the target (object, event)

- the situation ( context, circumstances)

The are six perceptual errors….

attribution theory
selective perception
halo effect
contrast effects

Attribution Theory

Attribution theory explains how we judge people differently

The theory suggests that when we observe and individuals behaviour we try to determine if: - The cause is internal
- The cause is external

In determining whether behaviour is internally or externally caused, we use three rules.

Distinctiveness- refers to whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations

Consensus - Consider how an individual behaviour compares with others in the same situation.

Consistency - Looks at if the individual act the same way over time

How attributions get distorted: attributions errors

There are errors or biases that distort attributions...

Fundamental attribution error
THe tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgements about others behaviour.

Self serving Bias
The tendency to attribute ones successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors

Selective perception
People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests and background, experience, and attitudes

Halo Effect
Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic

Contrast Effects
A persons's...
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