1. What is Organizational Behavior?
A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups & structure on behavior within organizations; its purpose is to apply such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
2. What is an “organization”? What are some examples? A consciously coordinated social unit composed of a group of people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Examples: Manufacturing & Service firms, School, Hospital, Church, Military Unit, Police department, Retail stores, Provincial & Federal Government agencies.
3. What are challenges for OB (and organizations) in the 21 century? OB considers that organizations are made up of individuals, group, and the entire organizational structure. Each of these units represents a different level within an organization, moving from the smallest unit “the individual”, to the largest “the entire organization”. Each level has challenges that affects how the level above and below might operate.
The challenges for individuals, group and the organizational level are provided below: Individual level| Group level| Organizational level|
* Individual Difference * Job Satisfaction * Motivation * Empowerment * Behaving Ethically| * Working with others * Workforce Diversity| * The Use of Temporary (Contingent) Employees * Improving Quality and Productivity * Developing Effective Employees * Putting People First * Helping Employees with Work-Life Balance * Creating a positive work Environment * Global Competition * Improving Customer service * Stimulating Innovation and change * Responding to Globalization|
Challenges for Individual level:
* Individual Difference includes personality, attitudes, perception, values, religion, age, gender, experience. * Job Satisfaction is a concern since it is negatively related to absenteeism and turnover, which cost organizations considerable amounts of money annually. * Empowerment means giving employee more responsibilities for what they do. * Ethics is the study of moral values or principles that guide our behavior and inform us whether actions are right or wrong. * Ethical Principles helps us to do the right thing.
Challenges for Group level:
* Working with Others:
People’s behavior in group differs from behavior when they are alone.
Success in any job involves developing interpersonal skills.
* Ability to demonstrate positive attitudes and behaviors * Take responsibility for one’s action
* Team Building
* Priority management
* Workforce Diversity
It’s the challenge to work with different varieties of people having individual differences.
Therefore Organization’s challenge is to accommodate diverse groups of people by addressing their different lifestyles, family needs & work styles.
Diversity, if positively managed, can increase creativity and innovation in organizations, as well as improve decision making by providing different perspective on problems.
Challenges for Organizational level:
* The Use of Temporary (Contingent) Employees
* Downsizing: The number of openings for nonpermanent workers has increased. * Benefit: Employees prefer the freedom and flexibility of temporary status * Challenge: Employees lack of security and stability that permanent employees have and organizations face the challenge of motivating employees who do not feel connected to the organization.
* Improved Quality and Productivity
An organization or group is productive if it achieves its goals and does so by transferring inputs (labor, materials) to outputs (finished goods or services) at the lower cost. Productivity implies a concern for both effectiveness and efficiency. * Productivity: A performance measure including effectiveness and efficiency....