Contents 1. Introduction of Organizational Behavior 2. Organizational Culture 3. Individual Difference 4. Perception 5. Learning 6. Motivation 7. Group & Team 8. Communication 9. Power and Organizational Politics 10. Decision Making 11. Conflict 12. Leadership 13. Organizational Change
1. Introduction of Organizational Behavior
Understanding Key Concept
l Organizational behavior is the study of individuals and groups in organizations. l Workforce diversity involves differences based on gender, race and ethnicity, age, and able-bodiedness. l The glass ceiling effect is a hidden barrier limiting advancement of women and minorities in organizations. l The contingency approach seeks ways to meet the needs of different management situations. l Organizations are collections of people working together to achieve a common purpose. l Intellectual capital is the sum total of knowledge, expertise, and energy available from organizational members. l Human resources are the people who do the work that helps organizations fulfill their missions. l Open systems transform human and material resource inputs into finished goods and services. l Managers are formally responsible for supporting the work efforts of other people.
Organizational Behavior Today People at work in organizations today are part of a new era. The institutions of society and the people who make them work are challenged in many and very special ways. Society at large increasingly expects high performance and high quality of life to go hand-in-hand, considers ethics and social responsibility core values, respects the vast potential of demographic and cultural diversity among people, and accepts the imprint of a globalization on everyday living and organizational competitiveness. In this new era of work and organizations, the body of knowledge we call “organizational behavior”offers many insights of great value. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR? Formally defined, organizational behavior—OB for short—is the study of individuals and groups in organizations. Learning about OB will help you develop a better work-related understanding about yourself and other people. It can also expand your potential for career success in the dynamic, shifting, complex, and challenging new workplaces of today and tomorrow. SHIFTING PARADIGMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Progressive workplaces today look and act very differently from those of the past. They have new features, they approach work processes in new ways, and they serve different customer and client markets. The last decade of the twentieth century was especially dramatic in both the nature and pace of change. One observer called it a “revolution that feels something like this: scary, guilty, painful, liberating, disorienting, exhilarating, empowering, frustrating, fulfilling, confusing, challenging. In other words, it feels very much like chaos.” But what began as a revolution has become everyday reality as we start a new century. Intense global competition, highly interdependent national economies, constantly emerging computer and information
technologies, new forms of organizations, and shifting population demographics are now part of the norm. Today we are surrounded by both change and its implications for organizations—just look at the new world of electronic commerce, and for individuals—look also at the demand for competencies with new technologies and commitment to continuous personal improvement. What remains is the struggle to deal best with these changes, individually and institutionally, and to keep up the pace as further changes emerge. In an article entitled “The Company of the Future,” Harvard Professor and former Secretary of Labor Robert Reich says: “Everybody works for somebody or something—be it a board of directors, a pension fund, a venture capitalist, or a traditional boss. Sooner or later you’e going to have to decide who you want to work for.” In making this...