Chapter 1-4 Exam: Study Guide
What do managers do?
Managers get things done through other people. The make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Managers do their work in an organization, which is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. • Plan: defining goals, establishing strategy, develop plans to coordinate activities. • Organize: who, what, when, where, why
• Lead: motivating, directing, effective communication channels, conflict resolve • Control: monitoring activities and correcting and significant deviations.
• Technical skills: the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. • Human skills: the ability to work with, understand and motivate others. • Conceptual skills: The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
• Disturbance handler
Effective vs. Successful Mangers
• Effective: spends nearly 50% of the time communicating • Successful: spends nearly 50% of the time networking.
Organizational Behavior (OB): A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
Disciplines Of Organizational Behavior:
• Psychology: The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. • Social psychology: An area of psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. • Sociology: The study of people in relation to their social environment or culture. • Anthropology: The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
Systematic Study: Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence.
Biographical Characteristics: Personal characteristics- such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure- that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity.
Levels of Diversity:
• Surface-level diversity: Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, or disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel by that mat activate certain stereotypes. • Deep-level diversity: Differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.
• Intellectual Abilities: The capacity to do mental activities- thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. • General mental ability (GMA): An overall factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions. • Physical abilities: The capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
How to attract diversity in the workplace:
• Target recruiting messages in specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce. • Diversity programs
Attitude: Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.
Components of Attitude:
• Cognitive: The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. (Evaluation) • Affective: The emotional or feeling segment of an...