Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. •People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. •The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. Attribution Theory: Judging Others
Our perception and judgment of others are significantly influenced by our assumptions of the other people’s internal states. When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. Internal causes are under that person’s control.
External causes are not – person forced to act in that way. Causation judged through:
Distinctiveness -- Shows different behaviors in different situations. Consensus -- Response is the same as others to same situation. Consistency -- Responds in the same way over time.
Errors and Biases in Attributions
Fundamental Attribution Error – Blame on people first, then situation. Self Serving Bias – If won, it’s our success, if failed, their fault. Selective Perception – selectively interpret what they see on basis of their interest, background, exp and attitude. Halo/Devil Effect – draw general impression on one of their trait. XX光环 Contrast Effect -- evaluation of someone’s characteristics that are affected by comparing with other who rank higher or lower on the same characteristic Another Shortcut: Stereotyping
Profiling – form of stereotyping which member of a group based on a single, usually racial traits Specific Shortcut Applications in Organization
Employment Interviews – perceptual biases raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments, formed in a glance, 1/10 of a second Performance Expectation
Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect) -- lower or higher expectation of leader leads to productivity of employees, critical impact for employees. Perception and Individual Decision Making
Problem is a perceived...