Organizational Behavior

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Define O.B with reference?
“It is the study of individual as well as group behavior within organization” [1]. OR
“A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organization for knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness” [2]. Organization behavior is a field of study meaning that it is a distinct area of expertise with a common body of knowledge. It studies three determinants of behavior in organization those are individuals, groups and structure. In addition it applies the knowledge to gain about individuals, groups and effect of structure on behavior in order to make organization work more effectively. Now the organizational behavior has become the widely accepted approach it is beginning to develop and mature as an academic discipline to improve our effectiveness in producing goods and services.

Explain S-O-B-C model?
An SOBC model was developed to identify the major variables in organizational behavior and show how they relate to one another. The letters stands for Stimulus, Organism, Behavior and Consequence. Based on social learning framework. SOBC model has three frameworks 1. Cognition Behavior Framework

2. Behavioral Framework
3. Social Framework

This model recognizes the interactive nature of environment (S and C) interpersonal, cognition (O) and behavioral (B) variables. A three variable model consisting of antecedent cues or stimuli (S) behaviors (B) and consequences (C) is typically used. However, when the human organism (O) representing cognitive mediating process is included as in a social learning approach then the four term model results.

S Variable:
The S variable in the model stands for the stimulus or, more broadly the environmental situation. Common stimuli include lights, sounds, odors, pinpricks and person. Stimuli goad humans into action, interpret what they are doing, and direct their choices. Thus the S variable in the SOBC model is very comprehensive and all-encompassing in nature. When applied to organizational behavior, this S variable is primarily concerned with the macro organizational environment.

O Variable:
The O variable in the model stands for the human organism and, more specifically, the cognitive mediating processes within the person. The use of the letter O to designate this variable is a fall back to the old SOR model of psychology, which recognized the organism with its accompanying cognitions as a mediating process between the stimulus and response.

B Variable:
Perhaps the best way to describe the B variable (Behavior) is to state what it is and what it is not. Behavior is anything that a person does; it is not something that is done to a person. Behaviors are the only empirical reality and thus are the appropriate unit for analysis in the study and application techniques of organizational behavior.

C Variable:
Similar to the S variable in the model, the C variable is environmental in nature. It stands for consequence. As the operant behavioristic approach points out, the person must operate on the environment in order to obtain a certain consequence. This is the contingent consequence emphasis from modern behaviorism, but the C also includes broader based dynamics (e.g, conflict) and applications (e.g., appraisal) as part of environmental consequences of organizational behavior. We can say that these four variables are interconnected.

The social learning approach emphasizes the interactive nature of the environment- person- behavior variables. This is representated in the S-O-B-C model by the interacting double arrow heads between the variables and the feedback loops that connect all the variables as shown in the First is the interactive connection between S & O. This interactive process occurs between the situation and the person before behavior results. The S ↔ O can be thought of as usually being the antecedent of the...
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