Organization of the Human Body

Topics: Anatomical terms of location, Blood, Anatomy Pages: 9 (1882 words) Published: November 8, 2012
Chapter 1 :
Organization of the Human Body

· Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology
· Study of how the body and its parts work or function

Anatomy: Levels of Study
· Gross/Macroscopic Anatomy
· Large structures
· Easily observable
· Regional anatomy
· all the structure (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in the particular region of the body, such as the abdomen or leg, are examined. · Systemic anatomy
· body structure is studied system by system
· Surface anatomy
· the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface · ex: identifying bulging muscles beneath a bodybuilder's skin · Microscopic Anatomy
· Very small structures
· Can only be viewed with a microscope
· Cytology
· considers the cells of the body
· Histology
· the study of tissues
· Developmental Anatomy
· traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span · Embryology
· concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
· Essential tools for studying anatomy:
· mastery of anatomical terminology
· observation
· manipulation
· palpation (feeling organs with your hands)
· auscultation (listening to organ sounds with a stethoscope)

Levels of Structural Organization
· Chemical level
· Simplest level of the structural hierarchy
· Atoms (tiny building blocks of matter) combine to form molecules, such as water and proteins. Molecules, in turn, associate in specific ways to form organelles (basic components of the microscopic cells. · Cellular level

· Cells have some common function, but individual cells vary widely in size shape because of their unique function
· Tissue level
· Tissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function · The 4 most basic tissue types are epithelium (covers body's surface and lines cavities), muscle (movement), connective tissue(support & protection for organs), and nervous tissue (rapid internal communication through electrical impulses). · Organ level

· An organ is a discrete structure composed of at least 2 tissue types (4 is more common)that performs a specific function for the body.
· Organ System level
· Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose · Integumentary System
· Forms the external body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury
· Synthesizes Vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors, sweat & oil glands · Skeletal System
· Protects and supports body organs
· Provides muscle attachment for movement
· Site of blood cell formation
· Stores minerals
· Muscular System
· Produces movement & facial expressions, maintains posture, produces heat · Nervous System
· Fast-acting control system
· Responds to internal & external change
· Activates muscles and glands
· Endocrine System
· Secretes regulatory hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, and reproduction · Cardiovascular System
· Transports materials (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, & wastes) in the body via blood
pumped by the heart
· Lymphatic System/Immunity
· Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood.
· Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream
· Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity
· The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances in the body · Respiratory System
· Keeps blood supplies with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
· The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs in the lungs · Digestive System
· Breaks down food & eliminates indigestible material by feces
· Allows for nutrient absorption into...
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