Organization of Human Body , Integumantary Sytem, Nervous System, and Endocrine System Reviewer

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Organization of the human body
Human anatomy and physiology – study of the structure and function of the human body. Anatomy- the scientific discipline that investigates the structure of the human body. Physiology – The scientific discipline that investigates the process of functions of living things. 6 Structural levels

1. Chemical level – atoms combine to form molecules
2. Cell level – Molecule form organelles
3. Tissue level – similar and surrounding material make up tissues 4. Organ level –diff tissue combine to form organs
5. Organ system level –Organs make up an organ system
6. Organism – organs sytem make up an organism
Characteristics of Life
1. Organization – Specific interrelationships among the parts of an organism and how those parts interact to perform specific functions. 2. Metabolism- To use energy to perform vital functions

3. Responsiveness- To sense changes in the environment and make adjustment that help maintain life. 4. Growth- Increase in size of all part of the organism.
5. Development- The changes an oranism undergoes through time. Fertilization to death. 6. Reproduction – Formation of new cells or new organism. Homeostasis – Maintenance of a relatively stable condition within the internal environment. *Nervous system and *endocrine system

Components of Homeostasis
> Receptor- Monitors the value of a variable
> Control Center- (*brain) establishes the set point around w/c the variable is maintained. > Effector-(*heart) change the value of the variable
*stimulus- changed variable. Initiates a homeostatic mechanism

Feedback Mechanism
1. Negative Feed – works to restore homeostasis by correcting a deficit within the system. 2. Positive Feedback- Deviation from a normal value occurs, the response of the system is to make the deviation even greater. *Visceral Membrane – inside

*Parietal Membrane- outside

TERMINOLOGY OF THE BODY PLAN
*anatomical Position
*Supine – face upward
*Prone – face downward

Directional Terms
* Inferior – Below
* Superior- Above
* Anterior – Toward front of body
* (ventral) – Toward the belly
* Posterior- Toward back of body
* (Dorsal) – Toward tthe back
* Proximal – Closer to point of attachement
* Distal – Farther from point of attachement
* Lateral – Away from midline of body
* Medial- Toward o within the middle of body
* Superficial – Toward or on the surface
* Deep – away from the surface
Body Parts and Regions
Head , neck, trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs
a. 4 regions – Right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, Right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant b. 9 regions – Right Hypochondriac region, Epigastric region. Left hypochondriac region, Left lumbar region, Umbilical region, Left lumbar region, Right iliac region, Hypogastric region, Left iliac region. PLANES

* Sagittal Plane – l
* Transverse - ---
* Frontal – dwrrer

Body Cavities
1. Thoracic Cavity – ribs and diaphragm
2. Abdominal Cavity- Diaphragm and abdomine
3. Pelvic Cavity- Pelvic bones
Serous Membranes
1. Trunk Cavities – lines the walls of the cavity
2. Serous membranes – secrete fluid that fills the space between the parietal and viceral membranes. Protect organs from friction 3. Pericardial cavity – surrounds (heart), Pleural cavities surrounds (lungs) & Peritoneal Cavity surrounds (abdominal and pelvic). 4. Mesenteries – hold abdominal organs in place , provide passageway for blood vessels and nerve to organs. 5. Retroperitoneal Organs – behind the parietal peritoneum. *kidney, adrenal glands, pancreas, intestines, urinary bladder. ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

Integumentary – protection, regulate temp, prevent water loss Skeletal- protection & support, allows body movements,store minerals and fat. Muscular-Provides body movements, posture and body heats.

Lymphatic- removes foreign substances from blood, combats disease,...
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