1. What is organizations development? And what are the characteristics of organizational development? Organization development (OD) means improving an organization’s ability to survive by changing its problem-solving and renewal processes. OD efforts are planned, systematic approaches to change.
* OD is not a micro approach to change. 不是一個微觀的改變應用 * OD is not any single technique. 沒有單一技術
* OD does not include random or ad hoc changes. 不包含隨機或臨時變更 * OD is not exclusively aimed at raising morale or attitudes. 不是專門針對提高士氣或態度
Chester Barnard and Chris Argyris, among other management theorists, have noted that a truly effective organization is one in which both the organization and the individual can grow and develop. An organization with such an environment is a “healthy” organization. The goal of organization development is to make organizations healthier and more effective. 切斯特·巴納德和克里斯·阿吉里斯，在其他管理理論家，已經指出，一個真正有效的組織是在其中的組織和個人都可以成長和發展。這樣的環境下的一個組織，是一個“健康”的組織。組織發展的目標是使組織更健康，更有效。
2. What is the mindset needed for today’s managers? Compare it to the past mindset. Today’s managers need a new mind-set—one that values flexibility, speed, innovation, and the challenge that evolves from constantly changing conditions. These successful firms will share certain common traits. They will all be: 今天的管理者需要一個新的心態，重視靈活性，速度，創新，不斷演變的挑戰，從不斷變化的條件。 這些成功的企業將分享某些共同的特徵。他們都將是：
• Faster—more responsive to innovation and change. 更快的反應更靈敏的創新和變革。 • Quality conscious—totally committed to quality. 質量意識完全致力於質量。 • Employee involved—adding value through human resources. 員工參與通過人力資源的增值。 • Customer oriented—creating niche markets. 以客戶為導向，創造利基市場。 • Smaller—made up of more autonomous units. 小更多的自治單位。
3. Describe organizational culture and the socialization process. The term “organization culture” refers to a system of shared meanings, including the language, dress, patterns of behavior, value system, feelings, attitudes, interactions, and group norms of the members. 術語“組織文化”是指一個系統共享的含義，包括語言，著裝，行為模式，價值體系，感情，態度，互動，和組成員規範。
For a new employee, the socialization process evolves through four stages: entering an organization with initial expectations, encountering the organization’s culture, adjusting to the culture and norms, and receiving feedback. 對於一個新員工，社會化過程的發展經歷四個階段：進入組織與最初的期望，遇到組織的文化，適應文化和規範，和接收反饋。
4. What is an approach to preventing corporate entropy?
Entropy is a principle of physics according to which everything that is organized will break down or run down unless it is maintained. Organization renewal, then, is an approach to preventing corporate entropy. 熵是一個物理學的一切，是舉辦將打破或向下運行，除非它是保持原則。組織重建，那麼，是一種方法，以防止企業熵。
Organizational renewal is important. It may be defined as an ongoing process of building innovation and adaptation into the organization. 組織重建是非常重要的。它可以被定義為一個持續的過程，組織建設的創新和適應。
For example, Google encourages innovation by letting engineers spend about 20 percent of their time in projects other than their primary job. The CEO Eric Schmidt explains why he thinks this model works: “I think it’s cultural. You have to have the culture, and you have to get it right.” 例如，谷歌鼓勵創新，讓工程師花費大約20％的時間在他們的主要工作以外的其他項目。 CEO埃里克·施密特（Eric Schmidt）解釋了為什麼他認為這個模型的工作原理：“我認為這是文化的。你必須要有文化，你必須得到它的權利。“
5. Explain the model of adaptive orientation.
Reactive management refers to the style of reacting to a stimulus after conditions in the environment have changed. It is a short-term, crisis type of adaptation, often involving replacement of key people, hasty reorganization, and drastic cutting of personnel and product lines. The reactive approach to change implies waiting until serious problems emerge that can no longer be ignored and then taking drastic and corrective measures. 被動管理是指環境條件的刺激後反應的風格已經改變了。這是一個短期的，危機的類型相適應，往往涉及更換的主要負責人，倉促重組，人員和產品線的大幅切割。反應的方法來改變意味著等待，不能再被忽略，直到出現嚴重的問題，然後採取激烈和糾正措施。
Renewing/transformational management refers to...
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