Personality: The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. 1.) MBTI: The most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world. Extrovert Vs Introvert: outgoing, sociable, and assertive Vs quiet and shy. || Sensing Vs Intuiting: practical and prefer routine and order, focus on details Vs rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture”. || Thinking Vs Feeling: use reason and logic to handle problems Vs rely on their personal values and emotions. || Judging Vs Perceiving: want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured Vs flexible and spontaneous (自发的，自然地). 2.) Big Five Personality Model: predict behavior at work.
Extraversion外向Better interpersonal skills; Greater social dominance; More emotionally expressive -> High performance; Enhanced leadership; Higher job & life satisfaction. Emotional stability淡定taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. Less negative thinking and fewer negative emotions; Less hyper-vigilant过于警惕 -> High job and life satisfaction; Lower stress levels. Agreeableness和谐High agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. Opposite is cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic (敌对的). Better liked; More compliant and conforming; -> Higher performance; Lower levels of deviant behavior (异常行为) Conscientiousness靠谱is a measure of reliability. Greater effort & persistence; More drive and discipline; Better organized & planning -> Higher performance; Enhanced leadership; Great longevity(寿命) Openness to Experience addresses好奇one’s range of interests and fascination with novelty(新奇的事物). Increased learning; More creative; More flexible & autonomous -> Training performance; Enhanced leadership; More adaptable to change 3.) Core self-evaluation 骄傲/自卑: People differ in the degree to which they like or dislike themselves and whether they see themselves as capable and effective. 4.) Self-monitoring 见人说人话 An individual’s ability to adjust his behavior to external, situational factors; 5.) Type A personality 急性子A person with a Type A personality is aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and, if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons. 6. ) HEROES Drive themselves and subordinates too hard. Focus too much on the short term. Implications for managers
MBTI is a valuable tool for increasing self-awareness and providing career guidance. It can help employees to better understand themselves and help team members to better understand each other. But because results tend to be unrelated to job performance, managers probably shouldn’t use it as a selection test for job candidates. Each of the Big Five traits has numerous implications for important OB criteria. Managers still need take situational factors into consideration. Factors such as job demands, the degree of required interaction with others, and the organization’s culture are examples of situational variables that moderate the personality-job performance relationship. You need to evaluate the job, the work group, and the organization to determine the optimal personality fit.
Perception: A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Human behavior is based on their perceived subjective world, rather than on the objective world. Errors and bias in Attributions: Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. * Fundamental attribution error: when judging others’ behavior, people are inclined to undervalue the impact of external factors while overvaluing the impact of internal factors. * Self-serving bias: people are inclined to attribute their own success to internal factors while putting the blame for failure on external factors. Shortcuts to Judging Others:
* selective perception (choose what we like to...
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