Organismal Biology Study Guide

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Organismal Biology Study Guide for Test # 4 (4 MAY 2005 – Wed)

Chapter 34 – Section F – Primates and the Evolution of Homo sapiens

Opposable thumb – in primates; but fully opposable only in anthropoid primates Prosimians – example – lemurs
Anthropoidea (anthropoids) – includes moneys, apes, humans Brachiating – swinging through the trees by the arms
Overlapping fields of vision (3-D) – advantage for brachiating Old World vs New World monkeys – differences and similarities Know 4 genera of of apes
Paleoanthropology – definition
Hominoid = refers to great apes and humans collectively
Hominid – more narrow meaning; confined to those twigs of the evolutionary tree that are more colosed related to us than any other species

2 groups of honidis – australopithecines (now extinct) and members of genus Homo

Be able to explain misconceptions about human and chimp evolution

Human evolution marked by the evolution of : brain size, jaw shape (prognathic jaws), bipedal posture, reduced size differences between sexes

Be able to explain key changes in family structure

“Lucy” kind of fossil, where found, and characteristics

Homo habilis – earliest fossils placed in our genus

“Turkana Boy” age, characteristics

Homo erectus – age, characteristics – first hominid species to migrate out of Africa (Bejing Man, Java Man)

Neanderthal – know about them

“Out of Africa” or replacement hypothesis – how it is supported, what it is

Chapter 50 – An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Section A – The Scope of Ecology

Ecology – definition
Abiotics vs biotic factors
Ecological time vs evolutionary time
Organismal biology
Organism – population – community – ecosystem
Community ecology
Ecosystem ecology
Landscape ecology
Rachel Carson – DDT – wrote book “Silent Spring” – know her story

Section B1 – Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms

Global patterns in distribution of organisms (know names and locations of Neotropical, etc)

Biogeography
Dispersal, transplants
Introduced species – e.g., Africanized bees, zebra mussels, etc. Limpet/sea urchin experiment – to determine effect of predation on seaweed Examples of abiotic factors

Section B2 – Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms (continued)

Climate - definition
Climate and biomes
Be able to interpret and know main concepts demonstrated in Fig 50.10, 50.11, 50.12 Equinox
Water air rises, as it cools, precipitation falls
Main direction of weather patterns in US ;What happens as warm air rises and goes over mountain chains

Know Fig. 50.15 very well – terms and concepts

Microclimates
Global climate and global warming – what effects this could have on species distribution

Section C1 – Aquatic and Terrestrial Biomes

Marine biomes and their main characteristics

Photic zone, aphotic zone, thermocline, benthic zone (Fig. 50.18)

Littoral zone, limnetic zone, profundal zone

Oligotrophic, eutrophic, and mesotrophic lakes – know the differences

Oxbow rivers and streams

Problems with damming

Wetlands
Estuaries
Be able to explain (and know names of) zones in marine environment – Fig. 50.22 Coral reefs
Ocean pelagic biome
Benthos
Abyssal zone

Section C2 - Aquatic and Terrestrial Biomes (continued)

Know main biomes and their main characteristics (e.g., savannas, deserts, chaparrals, temperate grasslands, temperate deciduous forests, coniferous forests, tundra Abiotic factors vs biotic factors

Vertical stratification
Canopy
Permafrost

Section D – The Spatial Scale of Distributions

Know various kinds of scales – see Fig. 50.26

Chapter 51 – Behavioral Ecology

Section A – Introduction to Behavior and Behavioral Ecology

Behavior – definition
Proximate vs ultimate causes – what each is
Nature-vs-nature – in behavior, BOTH are involved – understand example given by 51.1 Innate behavior – due to genetic programming
Ethology
Understand experiment in Fig 51.12 and what...
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