Organic Chemistry Notes Form 6

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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Carbon atoms:
* Carbon-carbon bonds are not easily broken
* Each carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds
* The C-H bond is almost non-polar

Classifying organic compounds:
* Number of carbon atoms in longest chain: meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non, dec * If it is a branch: -yl; di, tri or tetra means there is more than one branch, ethyl means there are 2 carbons coming off the branch * If it is a ring of carbons put cyclo at the front of the name * MORE IMPORTANT TO HAVE A LOW BOND THAN BRANCH

* -ene (double bond), -yne (triple bond), -anol (oxygen then hydrogen), chloro/bromo/fluoro/iodo- (halogen), amino- (nitrogen), -anoic acids (one oxygen with a single, one with a double bond) * If there is a double or triple bond write it just before ene or yne. Eg. But-2-ene * If naming an alcohol (an oxygen and a hydrogen), if there is a double or triple bond, -anol becomes, for example, -ene-2-ol or –yne-3-ol * Make sure you write everything in alphabetical order (branches, alkyl halides, etc) * When there is an –anoic acid, it is always attached to carbon 1.

Structural isomers:
It is when a molecule has the same molecular formula (eg. C6H12O6) but looks different and can be drawn in different ways.

PROPERTIES:

Alkanes:
* Formula CnH2n+2
* Saturated (no double or triple bonds) hydrocarbons – a good way to remember this: saturated in hydrogens * Melting and boiling points low but will increase as molecule gets bigger (the intermolecular bonds are strengthened) * Insoluble in water – non-polar because the C-H bond is non-polar * Non-conductors

* Less dense than water
* Very unreactive – however they do combustion and substitution reactions * Combustion (molecular formula) – reacted with O2 to produce water, and either CO2, CO or C * Substitution (structural formula) – is reacted with something like Br2, one Br goes on the alkane instead of a hydrogen and the...
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