Org Structure

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Organizational structures

There are many different opinions and definitions on organizational structure. Structure in one sense is the arrangement of duties used for the work to be done. This is best represented by the organization. What determines organizational structure? Classics in the field of organization theory represent many different schools. Some believe that certain factor, such as size, environment, or technology, determine organizational structure. They argue that these factors impose economic or other constrains on organizations that force them to choose certain structure over others. Thompson [31 p.51] said that structure "is the internal differentiation and patterning of relationships." He referred to structure as the means by which the organization sets limits and boundaries for efficient performance by its members, by delimiting responsibilities, control over resources, and other matters. Katz and Kahn [24 p.21] say that "structure is to be found in an interrelated set of events which return to complete and renew a cycle of activities." Jackson and Morgan use a modified definition originally formulated by Child [7]. They defined structure "as the relatively enduring allocation of work roles and administrative mechanisms that creates a pattern of interrelated work activities and allows the organization to conduct, coordinate, and control its work activities". As far as this paper does not concern the definition of organizational structure, dimensions of structure are much more important issues. The usual approach to structural dimensions is to assume that each dimension of structure can vary independently. Perhaps the principal disadvantage is that we have many dimensions of structure to deal with rather than a simple typology. Hall studied bureaucracy and he showed that an organization can be very bureaucratic in one characteristic and much less bureaucratic in another characteristic. Jackson and Morgan compared three studies of the fundamental dimensions of organization structure; those done by Aston group, by Child, and by Reimann. The comparison shows that the studied dimensions were very similar and they can be grouped in four main dimensions: 1. Structuring of activities (specialization, standardization, formalization, vertical span f control) 2. Concentration of authority (centralization, autonomy).

3. Line control of work flow.
4. Supportive component.
In this paper the following dimensions are taken into consideration: Specialization - the division of labor within the organization, the distribution of official duties among a number of positions, standardization - procedures that occur regularly, are legitimized by the organization, have rules that cover circumstances, and apply invariably. Formalization - the extent to which rules, procedures, instructions, and communications are written, Centralization – “place” where the authority to make legitimate decisions that affect the organization is located

2. Culture.
Although there are almost as many definitions of culture as there are anthropologists, most anthropologists view culture as the sum total of the beliefs, rules, techniques, institutions, and artifacts that characterize human populations. Culture consists of the learned patterns of behavior common to members of a given society - the unique lifestyle of a particular group of people. Culture, in the organizational context, may be broadly defined as the sum of group’s or nation’s way of thinking, believing, feeling, and acting. Culture is the way of life of a group of people. More formally culture is defined as the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by members of a society. A society can be represented by members of a nation as well as by members of an organization. Some authors distinguish terms of national and organizational culture. Organizational culture is defined as a complex set of values,...
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