Od Intervention

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Q.4 Define Motivation . Critically evaluate contribution of Mc Gregor to Motivation A.4. Definition : Motivation is the managerial function of ascertaining the motives of subordinates and helping them realize those motives . Motivation refers to the way a person is enthused at work to intensify his desire and willingness to use and channelize his/her energy for the achievement to the organizational objectives . According to Edwin B fillippo : Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possiblilty of gain or reward . Evaluation of contribution of Mc Gregor to Motivation :

Motivation is the process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y. After viewing the way in which managers dealt with employees. McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behaviour toward employees according to these assumptions. These set of assumptions were not based on any research , but are intuitive deductions .

Under Theory X, the four assumptions held by managers are:
1. Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. 2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. 3. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. 4. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.

In contrast to these negative views about the nature of human beings, McGregor listed the four positive assumptions that he called Theory Y: 1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. 2. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. 3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. 4. The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.

Theory Z
McGregor suggested the adoption of Theory Z, which is not a theory in true sense. It is merely a label interchangeable with type Z. It describes human behaviour as in the case of theories X and Y. The expression ‘Theory Z’ was adopted not for analytical purpose but for promotional purpose. 

Q.1. Define Values Critically evaluate “Allport-Vernon” Classification of Values.How values affect Business processes . Definition :
Value is defined as the desirable , an internalized criterion or standard of evaluation a person possesses .Milton Rokeach a noted psychologist , has defined values as global beliefs that guide actions and judgements across a varienty of situations . Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct (or end state existence) is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct (or end state of existence) The Allport-Vernon Study of Values (1931) categorizes values into six major types as follows: 1. Theoretical: Interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking. 2. Economic: Interest in usefulness and practicality, including the accumulation of wealth. 3. Aesthetic: Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony. 4. Social: Interest in people and human relationships.

5. Political: Interest in gaining power and influencing other people. 6. Religious: Interest in unity and understanding the cosmos as a whole. People place different importance to the above value types. This is important from the point of view of understanding the behavior of people. People in different occupations have different value systems which has led...
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