Observation of Chemical Changes

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Abstract: The objective of Experiment 1 was to observe some chemical changes. While observing the chemical changes in elements I also experimented with household cleaners to see how much chemical properties relate to our daily lives. Chemical changes occur all around me and I go without noticing them all the time without a second thought. This experiment opens my eyes to different chemical reactions occurring around me. This experiment also shows the importance of dilution. If I did not dilute something properly, than I might not be able to see a reaction occur. Experiment: The first step in this experiment was to dilute HCI, NH3, and NaOH. I placed each chemical in a separate well in the 24 well plate. I then diluted each of those chemicals with 10 drops of water. After the dilutions were complete, I made a chart like the Lab Assistant showed to keep my data organized. With the 96 well plate I then began the combination of the chemicals. For each chemical combination I placed 2 drops of one chemical and 2 drops of the next chemical, unless it said otherwise. After each combination I looked at the reactions with a white and black piece of paper underneath the well plate to determine what was happening. Using my chart I wrote down my observations that occurred. After testing required combinations I chose 3 household cleaners to test. I chose Clorox, Windex, and dish soap and recorded their reactions. Dish soap being the most acidic out of the three. Calculation and Error: The biggest calculation and error that I can think of, would be the trying to get the same amount of substance for each combination every time. The lab told us to measure in drops when there could be small drops and there could be big drops. Our mixtures were not completely perfect because our drops could not be exactly the same size every time. Conclusion: In conclusion to this experiment, I learned that dilution and having the proper measurements is important when combing chemicals together. Having too much or too little of a chemical when combining them together can change your reaction from an extreme reaction or to barely a reaction at all. This lab also brought me new perspective to chemical reactions. Chemical reactions can happen in our day to day lives even the times when we really don’t think they can occur. For example, making Kool-Aid or cleaning. When combining elements, the elements that combine do have to form new chemical elements and chemical formulas. It showed a different perspective of combining formulas together and naming them. Question Chemicals Reaction

A NaHCO3 and HCI - C02
Bubbles formed.

B HCI and BTB
Turned orange.

C NH3 and BTB
Changed Blue

D HCI and blue dye
Changed dark blue.

E Blue dye and NaOCI
Dark Blue. Then added drop of HCI and became really dark black. Overtime it got a little lighter.

F NaOCI and KI
Light yellow. After adding some starch, substance became brownish.

G KI and Pb(NO3)2
Golden yellow.

H NaOH and phenolphthalein
Light pink.

I HCI and phenolphthalein
Clear.

J NaOH and AgNO3
Turned Brown and cloudy.

K AgNO3 and NH3
Clear. Developed slight sediment and slight bubbles at first.

L NH3 and CuSO4
Baby Blue.

Observations of Chemical Changes
Questions
A. Suppose a household product label says it contains sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate). How would you test this material for the presence of sodium bicarbonate?

You would test the presence of sodium bicarbonate by adding a diluted acid solution. If no bubbles formed from carbon dioxide then there would be no sodium bicarbonate present. If carbon dioxide was released, bubbles would form showing the presence of sodium bicarbonate.

B. You know what color phenolphthalein and bromothymol blue turn when testing an acid or a base. Use the empty pipet in the Auxiliary Supplies Bag to test several (at least 3) household items including household cleaning products with bromothymol blue. Rinse...
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