Nutrition

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BIO 113 - BASICS OF NUTRITION - EXAM 1 REVIEW
Role of Nutrition in Our Health
Nutrients: the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function. Nutrition: how food nourishes and influences our bodies and our health. Wellness: the absence of disease; physical, emotional and spiritual health. Components of wellness are nutrition and physical activity. Processes: Consumption, Digestion, Absorption, Metabolism, Storage and Excretion. Deficiency Diseases: scurvy - Vitamin C, goiter - Iodine, Rickets for Vitamin D - Know 6 essential nutrients - Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Water, Vitamins & Minerals - Organic nutrients vs. Inorganic nutrients - Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals,water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients. - Macro vs. micronutrients - macronutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, fats & water while micronutrients are vitamins and minerals.

- Energy content of macro-nutrients - Carbohydrates - 4kcal/g- Primary source of fuel for the body especially for the brain, CNS and RBC's. require glucose for they are not synthesized by the body, unable to produce cellular respiration., found in grains, wheat, rice, legumes (beans), vegetables, fruits, seeds and nuts and milk products - only COH containing food. Min. of 130g/day for RDA Fats - composed of lipids, insoluble in H20, provide 9kcal/g, important energy source, found in butter, margarine, regular oils,source of fat soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids. Plant oils - unsaturated (heart healthy) Proteins are chains of AA, important for building cells, tissues, maintaining bones, repairing damage, regulating metabolism and fluid balance, work as buffer for PH. Sources include lean meats, low fat milk, dairy products. Fat Soluble Vitamins - A,D,E and K, dissolves easily in fats and in oils, can be stored in the body. Water Soluble - C and B...
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