Please review the following concepts/terms/ideas for the upcoming exam. Information is divided up by topics that we covered each week in class. You may need to make additional notes on this study guide, each point is not fully representative of the concept.
Fats and Heart Disease (Units 10-12)
1. Define a fatty acid.
2. Define a triglyceride.
3. Compare and contrast a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid.
4. List food sources of unsaturated (mono- and poly) and saturated fats.
5. What is a sterol? Most common sterol is ______________.
6. List food sources of cholesterol.
7. List functions of fat in the body.
8. What are the two essential fatty acids? What are the benefits of these in heart health? List food sources of each.
9. What are EPA and DHA? Explain their roles in heart health. List rich food sources of EPA & DHA.
10. What are trans fats? List foods that they are found in.
11. Review strategies for increasing mono and polyunsaturated fats in the diet and how to reduce saturated fat intake.
12. AMDR for fat is _____ to _____%
13. Fat provides ____ calories/gram.
14. Define atherosclerosis.
15. What are the controllable and uncontrollable risk factors for developing heart disease?
16. Define a lipoprotein.
17. What is the action of LDL in the body? High LDL levels _________ risk for heart disease.
18. What is the action of HDL in the body? High HDL level _________ risk for heart disease.
Protein and Vegetarianism (Units 13-15)
1. Define an amino acid.
2. What part of an amino acids structure makes it unique?
3. There are 20 common amino acids. ____ are essential and ____ are non-essential.
4. What does it mean if a nutrient is essential? What does non-essential mean?
5. What does it mean when a protein is denatured? What are some causes of this?
6. Define protein turnover.
7. Protein provides ____ calories per gram.
8. Protein RDA is ____ grams per kilogram of body weight.
9. AMDR for protein is _____ to _____%
10. Review the 7 functions of protein covered in the slide set.
11. Define the following terms: enzyme, hormone, edema, antibody
12. What is protein-energy malnutrition? List symptoms.
13. The quality of a protein is determined by what two factors?
14. Be able to identify complete (high-quality) and incomplete (low-quality) sources of protein.
15. List the reasons for choosing vegetarianism.
16. List the health benefits of vegetarianism.
17. Define the following types of vegetarianism:
18. Problematic nutrients for vegetarians include:
19. List foods a vegan could consume to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and vitamin D.
Energy Balance and Body Composition (Unit 20)
1. Define a healthy weight. What factors do you need to consider in assessing weight?
2. What are the three things to look at in assessing body weight?
3. Define BMI.
4. List BMI for underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese. Are there limitations to using BMI?
5. Understand the role of body fat distribution on health risk; apple vs. pear shape body types.
6. Define subcutaneous vs. visceral fat.
7. Waist circumference as a measure of body composition; parameters for males and females.
8. Define energy balance, positive energy balance and negative energy balance.
9. Be able to use caloric values of carbohydrate, fat and protein to calculate calories in a food or meal.
10. Energy expenditure is made up of 3 factors. List these 3 factors.
11. Define basal metabolism. What is the number #1 factor that affects basal metabolism or BMR?
12. What percentage of energy expenditure does BMR account for?