Nursing 208

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Test 2
Topic IV: Infection/Wound
Table 31-2 Nosocomial Infections
SiteMost common MicroorganismsCauses
Urinary TractEscherichia coli, Enterococcus species.
Pseudomonas aeruginosaImproper catheterization technique, contamination of closed drainage system, inadequate hand cleansing Surgical sitesStaphylococcus aureus (including MRSA). Enterococcus species (including VRE). Pseudomonas aeruginosaInadequate hand cleansing, improper dressing change technique BloodstreamCoagulase-negative. Staphylococci. Staphylococcus aureus. Enterococcus speciesInadequate hand cleansing, improper intravenous fluid, tubing, & site care technique PneumoniaStaphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Enterobacter speciesInadequate hand cleansing, improper suctioning technique

1Introduction & body defense mechanisms
oDefinitions
Infection
Invasion of body tissue by microbes, & their subsequent proliferation Growth in that tissue
Asymptomatic/subclinical
S/S so mild that it doesn’t alert pt enough to go to MD Example
CMV (Cytomegalovirus)
Part of the Herpesvirus group
Disease
Detectable alteration in normal tissue function
Virulence
Ability of microorganism to produce disease
Normal flora
Normal microbes in body
Can help or could be harmful
Normal defenses
Guard us against invasion &/or proliferation of microbes Inflammation
Response to injury
Dilutes invaders & destroys microbes & promotes the repair of tissue Inflammation doesn’t mean infection
Protection against infection
Immune System
Specific defenses
Resistance of body to infection
Active Immunity
Protection provided by our own bodies
Usually lasts a long time, possibly lifetime
You are give antigen & make your own antibody
Nosocomial infections
Acquired in hospital & are more virulent than other organisms in normal world because they have become resistant to many meds given in hospital Pts & workers can get these
Iatrogenic infections
Caused because of medical treatments
IVs
Preventable
Medical asepsis
Limiting number of organisms
Removes as many as possible
Not sterilized
Surgical asepsis
Make an area totally free of microbes
Sterile dressing & gloves
Barrier technique
Protects pt from nurse or anyone who walks in
Used on those c compromised immune system
CA
Burns
AIDS
Decreased WBC
Neutropenic
Compromised immune system b/c of low numbers of neutrophils Wounds
Includes any injury to body either internal or external •Protective barriers are compromised
Inflammation process has begun
Closed wound
No break in skin
Closed head injury c brain
Open wound
Break in skin or membranes
Acute wound
Occurs & heals in timely way
Function is restored
Chronic wound
Fails to heal in timely/orderly way
Difficult, long-term process
Decubitus ulcers
Keloids
Abnormal excess of collagen formation
Dark skin more vulnerable to this
Can be removed cosmetically
o4 Types of Microorganisms
Bacteria
Most common
Can live & be transported through air, water, food, soil, body tissues & inanimate objects Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermis
Escherichia coli
Viruses
Consist primarily of nucleic acid & therefore must enter living cells in order to reproduce Rhinovirus (common cold)
Herpes
Hepatitis
HIV
Fungi
Include yeast & molds
Candida albicans (vaginal flora)
Parasites
Live on other living organisms
Malaria
oBody Defense Mechanisms
Non-specific defenses
Protect against microbes
Skin
Intact, dry
Nose
Cillia, mucus & turbinates
Mouth
Shedding of mucus membranes
Eyes
Tears, lashes, blinking
GI tract
Hyperacidity
Vagina
Hyperacidity
Inflammatory response
Five signs of inflammation
Pain
Swelling
Redness
Heat
Decreased function of affected part
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