spreading fixed costs over its global sales volume.
utilizing its production facilities more intensely.
increased bargaining power with its suppliers.
learning effects associated with higher volume.
2.The ability to realize cost economies from global volume is greatest in the case of a.
products that need to be customized to local requirements.
commodity-type products that serve universal needs.
low-weight, high-value products that can be differentiated by global companies. d.
products that can be economically manufactured in small batches. e.
companies competing in industries where they face a large number of multinational competitors.
3.Dell is expanding its market share in European countries because its direct-sales model is more effective than the business model used by its European rivals. Which of the following benefits of global expansion is Dell experiencing, relative to its competitors? a.
Lower costs for labor and raw materials
…..Further exploitation of distinctive competencies
Decreased political and economic risk
Better realization of location economies
More incentive for local subsidiaries to develop competencies
4. .When toymaker Mattel sells Barbie dolls in the Middle East, it changes the doll's shape to one that is a more accurate portrayal of a female body. Mattel does this to a.
create a commodity-type product.
transfer technological know-how.
increase product standardization.
realize experience curve effects.
respond to differences in local tastes.
5.A localization strategy is based on which of the following ideas? a.
There is a convergence in the tastes of consumers in different nations of the world. b.
There are substantial economies...