1. How did manorialism develop in Medieval Europe?
• Some people moved to countryside and focused on agriculture.
• Small, independent economies arose, centered on large agricultural manors.
• system controlled by powerful warrior landlords, built small armies to protect manor.
• Landlords also leased out land in exchange for loyalty.
2. How did the idea of feudalism emerge as an historical construct?
3. What role does each of the social orders play in the feudal system?
• top of social hierarchical system.
• had ultimate control over their land and could grant land to others
• received grants of land from kings.
• use land to generate income and provide money, in form of taxes, to king.
• warrior class.
• fought king’s wars and sometimes rewarded with land of own
4. How do the different types of serfs compare to each other?
• Some serfs were freemen who rented land from a lord as tenants.
o paid for the use of the lord’s land
o otherwise were not bound to the land or obligated to any other duties
• majority of serfs were villains
o received a small parcel of land but did not own it
o legal status was roughly equivalent to that of a slave
o owing most of their produce to lord as a fee for use of the land
5. What options did a second son have for a career in medieval society?
• had to find their own ways to gain land
• squires, assisting knights
• apprenticeship. Boys would train and often live with a master of a trade, such as a carpenter, blacksmith, or cobbler
6. In what ways were women’s positions in medieval society tied to the fate of men?
• A single woman’s position was tied to her father’s; a married woman’s position was tied to her husband’s.
7. How did the importance of knights change over time
• longer Crusades and foreign wars required extended terms of service
• by end of Middle Ages, bulk of military consisted of mercenary soldiers, or warriors for hire, with minority of knights now an officer class.
8. What role did the Church play in maintaining the manorial system?
• While manorialism emphasized private land, monks and nuns held their land and property communally, sharing it for the use of the entire order.
9. How did the Church in the medieval period gain wealth?
• Crusades. brought gold, treasure, and innovations into Western Christendom. • Tithing: the practice of giving 10% of annual income to the Church • ceremonial practices, such as baptisms and burials, which brought money to the Church • Church did not have to pay any taxes to the government
02.02 Rulers and Robes
1. What immediate effect did the fall of the Roman Empire have on Europe?
• The Empire’s fall to so-called barbarians left a vacuum of power in much of Europe
• marked the start of the Middle Ages
2. How did Charles Martel build on the successes of Clovis?
• Martel played a very large role in briefly reuniting the Franks to fend off Muslim invaders moving north from Spain at the Battle of Poitiers
• his achievements made it possible for his grandson, Charlemagne "Charles the Great," to begin the Carolingian Empire
3. How did Charlemagne's rule change Europe?
• Charlemagne began using land grants and oaths of fealty to build his army and government and to hold his kingdom together.
• By 814, his empire stretched from the Pyrenees in the southwest, to the border with Britanny in the northwest, to Bohemia in the east.
4. How did Charlemagne act as a champion of the Church?
• Charlemagne expanded Christian influence as he expanded his empire
• he issued reforms and appointed bishops.