NATIONALISM AND POLITICAL IDENTITIES IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND LATIN AMERICA During the 1920s and 1930s, after the Great War and during the Great Depression, intellectuals and political activists in Asia, Africa, and Latin America challenged the ideological and economic underpinnings of European imperialism and neo-colonialism, as nationalist and anti-imperialist movements gained strength on each of these continents. * In Asia, Japan's militarist leaders sought to build national strength through imperial expansion. In China, the Ming dynasty ended, giving rise to a civil war fought between adherents of competing visions of the new Chinese state. Japanese imperial aggression complicated the progress of this war. In India, a strong nationalist movement began to threaten the hold of the British Empire on the subcontinent. * In Africa, European imperialists tightened their control of colonial possessions, as African economic life became more tightly enmeshed in the global economy. With the onset of the Great Depression, European countries that controlled the export of African products experienced dramatic decreases in trade volume and commodity prices and, consequently, African peoples suffered. Meanwhile, African peoples challenged European imperial authority and developed competing visions of national identity and unity that would come to fruition after World War II. * In Latin America, statesmen and political activists worked to alter the neo-colonialist economic domination of the United States, their "good neighbor" to the north. Neo-colonialism, which often featured military intervention and political interference, compromised the independent political and economic development of Latin American states, but it did not prevent nationalist leaders from developing strategies to counter new forms of imperialism. * Asian Paths to Autonomy
* India's quest for home rule
* Indian National Congress and Muslim League
* After WWI, both organizations dedicated to achieving independence * Indian nationalists inspired by Wilson's Fourteen Points and the Russian Revolution * Frustrated by Paris Peace settlement: no independence for colonies * British responded to nationalist movement with repressive measures * Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948), leader of Indian nationalism * Raised as a well-to-do Hindu, studied law in London * Spent twenty-five years in South Africa, embraced tolerance and nonviolence * Developed technique of passive resistance, followed a simple life * Became political and spiritual leader, called the Mahatma ("Great Soul") * Opposed to caste system, especially the exclusion of untouchables * 1920-1922, led Non-Cooperation Movement; 1930, Civil Disobedience Movement * The India Act of 1937
* 1919 British massacre at Amritsar killed 379 demonstrators, aroused public * Repression failed, so the British offered modified self-rule through the India Act * Unsuccessful because India's six hundred princes refused to support * Muslims would not cooperate, wanted an independent state * Great Depression worsened conflict between Hindus and Muslims * Muslims believed Hindus discriminated against them * Muhammad Ali Jinnah, head of the Muslim League, proposed two states, one of which would be Pakistan * China's search for order
* The republic, after 1911
* 1911 revolution did not establish a stable republic; China fell into warlords' rule * Through unequal treaties, foreign states still controlled economy of China * Growth of Chinese nationalism
* Chinese intellectuals expected Paris Peace Conference to end treaty system * Instead, Paris treaties approved Japanese expansion into China * May Fourth...