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Sumerians, first to form civilizations.
1. Advanced cities
2. Specialized workers
3. Complex institutions
4. Record keeping
5. Advanced technology (ziggurats)
-Metallurgy- one of the first jobs
-Medicine was included as an advancement
-Tyrian purple fabric dye was made with shells mucus (purple = royalty) Labor intensive ^^
- music: man expresses himself
- monarchy/king or queen: passed through blood
-tyranny biggest guns theory
-oligarchy: family (of countries) with some economic power. -aristocracy: ruled by a few. Aristocrats
-democracy: ruled by the people
These city-states functioned much as an independent country does today. From these city-states, the priests and people granted the military rulers full-time powers to rule over them. -Dynasty: rules for a long time then is removed. Ex. Chinese dynasties "Follow the money" IMPORTANT

-cultural diffusion: the idea that ideas are being traded through different regions. ex. The spread of Islam -about 2350 BCE, Sargon came. Conqueror
Created the worlds first empire and conqueror
-Mesopotamia is the crossroads of civilization and (when discovered) oil. BABYLONIAN EMPIRE
Hammurabi made Hammurabi's code (obviously)
He recognized that a single uniform code would help to unify the diverse cultures. WEST ASIA
high infant mortality rate
High death rate poor sanitation
Domestic policy:
Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Hittites, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Lydians, =major empires Economic production:
Econ = agriculture
Social structure:
Women were property and could be sold. So could kids
Humans serve Gods
Temples/ ziggurats
Divinity status for the monarchs
Gods ranged by regions
Oral tradition
Schools for government workers (scribes)
-ART was centered around religious and rulers
-majority lived in huts made of mud bricks
3100ish BCE
-lower part of the Nile. (North)
-delta region consisted of rich soil; good for farming
Around 3100 BC a strong willed king of upper Egypt named Menes united all of Egypt. -Sargon - Mesopotamia (Akkadian empire) = Menes to Egypt
-As a symbol of his United Kingdom he combined crowns
-Menes made Memphis his capital
His dynasty ruled for 1600 years
-kings were gods "Pharaohs"
Pharaoh stood at the center of Egyptians religion
Theocracy: government by religion ^^
-pyramid is the Pharaohs resting place after death
-preserved a dead persons body through mummification
-Gilgamesh - Sumerians = Noah - Jews
-used stalks of papyrus reeds to make the papyrus paper
-1640 BCE a group of Asian nomads swept across the Sinai peninsula into Egypt (the Hyksos) Had harpies drawn chariots
Ruled Egypt for a few hundred years
-Hittites fought Egyptians in kadesh
Battle ended with a truce
-the egyptians return to begin a new series of dynasties during the new kingdom period /_\
Obelisk "Washington monument" in the center
2500ish BCE
-settlement along waterways
-harappan civilization around Indus River: 2500 BCE
Monsoons control trade times
-Assimilation of invading and migrating groups (everyone goes there for economic reasons) -Mostly Hindu
-Poor sanitation
-Many different languages
-learned the grid system
- arrival of aryans 1500 BCE
-center of civilizations is Ganges river
-chandragupta Maury and grandson Asoka form the mauryan dynasty. 4th and 3rd centuries -decline and return to regional rulers
-another attempt to unify northern part of India under Gupta dynasty 320 CE (classical era) -always dealing with invasions
-Huns 455-500 CE
-cultivation of cotton
-trading with Mesopotamia 2300 BCE
-use of Arab, Jewish, and roman traders
-primary exports: spices, horses, silk, gold
-assimilation with groups through caste systems
-untouchables are at the bottom.
The mere "touch" of someone from this caste endangered the "purity" of...
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