Normal Development of Speech and Language

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Katherine Polzin
Unit 2-CMD 160 Online
NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE

The reading assignment for this unit is chapters 3 and 7 in Plante and Beeson. You might want to look at other sources, as well. This unit will be worth 50 points and is due at 11:30 PM on Sunday, February 10th. Respond to the following questions:

1. In reference to the nature of sound, define: frequency, amplitude (intensity), rarefaction, compression, equilibrium. a. Frequency: The number of cycles per second of a sound wave; perceived as pitch. b. Amplitude (intensity): A measure o the magnitude or pressure of a sound wave; perceived as loudness. c. Compression & Rarefaction: As sound energy travels, molecules bump up against each other, as they bunch together they cause areas of compression and as they spread apart to return to their original location causes areas of rarefaction. d. Equilibrium: Once a wave returns to its normal balance after compressions and rarefactions it gains equilibrium.

2. Compare and contrast frequency and pitch.
a. Frequency is the actual number of vibrations per second in a sound, pitch is the way those frequencies sound to us.

3. In reference to vowel production, define: resonance, formants. a. Resonance: begins within the resonance system which includes the pharynx and the oral and nasal cavity. This system modifies sound waves from the larynx to form particular sounds. These formants are where the vowel sounds are at their most distinctive pitch.

4. In reference to consonant production, define: place of production, manner of production, cognates. a. Place of Production: the articulators point of contact for the tongue. b. Manner of Production: The way or manner of sound production, causing a pause in airflow. c. Cognates are consonants that have the same manner and place of production where only voicing is the only indicator of difference....
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