Stock market is a market where the trading of company stock, both listed securities and unlisted takes place. It is different from stock exchange because it includes all the national stock exchanges of the country. Stock Exchanges are an organized marketplace, either corporation or mutual organization, where members of the organization gather to trade company stocks or other securities. The members may act either as agents for their customers, or as principals for their own accounts. Stock exchanges also facilitates for the issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments including the payment of income and dividends. The trade on an exchange is only by members and stock broker do have a seat on the exchange. HISTORY OF INDIAN STOCK MARKET:
Indian stock market marks to be one of the oldest stock market in Asia. It dates back to the close of 18th century when the East India Company used to transact loan securities. In the 1830s, trading on corporate stocks and shares in bank and cotton presses took place in Bombay. Though the trading was broad but the brokers were hardly half dozen during 1840 and 1850. An informal group of 22 stockbrokers began trading under a banyan tree opposite the Town Hall of Bombay from the mid-1850s, each investing a (then) princely amount of Rupee 1. In 1860, the exchange flourished with 60 brokers. Further the brokers increased to 250. The informal group of stockbrokers organized themselves as the Native Share and Stockbrokers Association which, in 1875, was formally organized as the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). BSE was shifted to an old building near the Town Hall. In 1928, the plot of land on which the BSE building now stands (at the intersection of Dalal Street, Bombay Samachar Marg and Hammam Street in downtown Mumbai) was acquired, and a building was constructed and occupied in 1930. Premchand Roychand was a leading stockbroker of that time, and he assisted in setting out traditions, conventions, and procedures for the trading of stocks at Bombay Stock Exchange and they are still being followed. Several stock broking firms in Mumbai were family run enterprises, and were named after the heads of the family. In 1956, the Government of India recognized the Bombay Stock Exchange as the first stock exchange in the country under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act. The most decisive period in the history of the BSE took place after 1992. In the aftermath of a major scandal with market manipulation involving a BSE member named Harshad Mehta, BSE responded to calls for reform with intransigence. The foot-dragging by the BSE helped radicalise the position of the government, which encouraged the creation of the National Stock Exchange (NSE), which created an electronic marketplace. INTRODUCTION TO NATIONAL STOCK EXCHANGE (NSE):
National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) is a nationwide, electronic exchange offering investors trading facility in a variety of financial instruments which includes equities, debentures, government securities, derivative products such as index futures, index options, stock futures, stock options, interest rate futures etc. NSE operates three market segments, the Capital Market segment (CM), Futures & Options Market segment (F&O) and the Wholesale Debt Market segment (WDM). NSE is the largest stock exchange in India in terms of traded value in equity, debt and derivative products. Today NSE's share to the total equity market turnover in India averages around 69%, whereas, in the futures and options market this share is around 98%. The Exchange has around 1,075 trading members who are connected to the Exchange through advanced communication technology (VSATs) and leased lines. NSE was incorporated in 1992 and was given recognition as a stock exchange in April 1993. It started operations in June 1994 with the launch of the Wholesale Debt Market Segment. Subsequently, the Capital Market Segment was launched in...
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