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Describe the general principles of control and basic hierarchy of risk reduction measures that encompass technical, behavioral and procedural controls? General Principles of Prevention:
There are some general principles of prevention that can be applied to eliminate hazards and reduce the risk in the workplace. These principles rely on the correct selection of technical, procedural and behavioral controls. 1. Avoid risk: 2. Evaluate risks which cannot be avoided 3. Control hazards at source: 4. Adapt work to suit the individual 5. Adapt to technical progress 6. Replace the dangerous with the non dangerous or less dangerous 7. Develop logical overall prevention policy 8. Give priority to collective protective measures over individual protective measures: 9. Give appropriate information, instruction, training and supervision to employees.
Where possible Evaluate risks which cannot be avoided: Through the risk assessment process
Control hazards at source: By going to the source of the problem directly (e.g. if there is noise hazards in the workplace tackle the source of the nose>
Adapt work to suit the individual:
By applying good ergonomic principles to job and workplace design (by job rotation)
Replace the dangerous with the non dangerous or less dangerous: By substituting one hazard with something less hazardous e.g. replace a corrosive chemical with one that does the same job but is classified as less irritant and less harmful
Develop a coherent overall prevention policy:
By consistency using the same approach across the whole organization
Give priority to collective protective measures over individual protective measures: By creating a workplace that is safe for all rather than relying on measures that only protect one worker at a time e.g. install a guard rail rather than rely on PPE.
Why do instruction, training and supervision form a part of safe system? Give appropriate information, instruction, training and supervision to employee: So that workers have the necessary background information to make correct choices.
Page 2 of 6 When selecting control options form these general principles of prevention you should be aware that preventive measure can be categorized as: 1. Technical 2. Procedural 3. Behavioral
General Hierarchy of Control The following elements make up the general hierarchy of control: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Avoid risks Elimination / substitution Reduce exposure or the time of exposure Isolation / segregation Engineering controls Safe system or work Training and information Personal protective equipment Welfare Monitoring and supervision
Risk avoidance is simply to avoid completely the activity giving rise to the risk
Elimination / substitution
If a hazard can be eliminated then the risk created by the hazards disappears. For example hazardous substances can sometimes be replaced with materials which do the same job but present no risk to health.
Reduce exposure or the time of exposure
If the degree to which a worker is exposed to hazard can be reduced then that worker is far less likely to have an accident with that hazard. For example an engineer who spend all day working on machinery with hazardous moving parts is more likely to suffer injury than the engineer who spend only an hour of their working day to exposed to the same hazard.
Isolation / segregation
Isolation: The aim her to isolate the hazard physically so that nobody is exposed to it e.g. acoustic enclosure of a noisy machine to reduce the noise exposure; guards around moving machinery to prevent contact Segregation: refer to the idea that certain hazards must not be accessible to unauthorized workers e.g. in a workplace with radiation hazard only authorized person should have access only
What do engineering controls do?
Page 3 of 6 Engineering control involves use of an...
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