Submitted to: - Ms. Rohma Javed Rashid By: - Aman Ahmad B.A. LL.B. (H) 1st Year
I have taken many efforts for completing this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.
I am highly indebted to Ms. Rohma Javed Rashid, my History teacher for her valuable guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for her support in completing the project.
Finally, all glory to God for He makes the impossible become possible!
NATURE OF STATE IN MEDIEVAL PERIOD
1. The Background
2. Delhi Sultanate
3. The Mughals
4. Offices and Hierarchal Structure
5. Iqta, Jagir and Mansab And Taxation
6. Nature Of Medieval State
Since the decline of the Gupta state the Indian polity saw decentralization and rise of various regional states. Transition from early to medieval period saw tripartite struggle among the three regional powers- Palas of Bengal, Pratiharas of northern India and Rashtrakutas of Peninsular India. Very soon northern India saw the emergence of Rajput small kings aspiring to become kingdoms. But the arrival of the Turks from north western direction saw emergence of new process of an extended medieval state.
In the thirteenth century, a new kind of dynastic domain emerged in North India. The Delhi Sultanate had its origin in victories by Muhammad Ghauri, who sacked Ghazni in 1151, and then expelled Ghaznavids to Punjab, in 1157. Muhammad Ghauri marched into the Indus basin to uproot the Ghaznavids in 1186. On the way, his armies conquered Multan (1175), Sind (1182), Peshawar and Lahore (1186). In 1190, he occupied Bhatinda, which triggered battles with the Rajput King Prithviraj Chauhan, whom he finally defeated in 1192. Having broken the Rajput hold on western routes to the Ganga basin, the Ghaurid armies marched eastward until Bakhtyar Khalji finally defeated Laksmanasena in Bengal, in 1200. Muhammad Ghauri died in 1206. His trusted Mamluk (ex–slave) general, Qutb–ud–din–Aibak, governor of Delhi, then declared an independent rule. This dynasty of Ilbari Turks was the first in a series that became collectively known as the Delhi Sultanate. Later Ghaurid and Ghaznavid efforts to bring Delhi back into their fold were finally defeated by the Delhi Sultan Iltutmish in 1211–1236. Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator Of the Turkish conquests in north India. He gave the new state capital, Delhi, a monarchical form of government and governing class. He introduced Iqta–grant of revenue from a territory in lieu of salary. He maintained a central army and introduced coins of Tanka (silver) and Jital (copper). The famous Qutub Minar was completed during his reign. Iltutmish nominated his daughter Raziya (Raziyyat–ud–Din) to be his successor. Still, the new state had enough internal momentum to survive severe factional disputes during the 10 years following Iltutmish’s death, when four of Iltutmish’s children or grandchildren were in turn raised to the throne and deposed. This momentum was maintained largely through the efforts of Iltutmish’s personal slaves, who came to be known as the Fort (Chihilgan), a political faction whose membership was characterized by talent and by loyalty to the family of Iltutmish. The political situation had changed by 1246, when Ghiyas-ud-din Balban, a junior member of the Forty, had...