Science Natural Selection/Evolution Study Guide
- Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolution by natural selection after collecting and studying many organisms on the voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle. - Jean Baptiste Larmarck (1700s): he was a soldier and a biologist and an early proponent of the idea of evolution and natural laws. - George Cuvier (1800s): Was in instrumental in establishing the field of comparative anatomy through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. He established extinction as a fact. - Charles Lyell’s (1800s): his interests ranged from volcanoes to stratiography or basically Prehistoric Archaeology. He argues that earth was shaped by slow moving forces still in operation today. - Alfred Wallace: best known for independently proposing a theory of evolution due to natural selection. (This prompted Charles Darwin to publish his theory)
- Evolution: the development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time. - The theory of Natural Selection: the process in which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less adapted individuals. Their environment selects the traits. - Homologous Structures: anatomical structures that occur in different species and that originated by heredity from a structure in most recent common ancestor of species. - Analogous Structures: anatomical structures that have closely related functions but do not derive from the same ancestral structures. (ex. Wings of birds vs. wings of butterflies or insects) - Vestigial Structures: Anatomical structures that seem to fit no function but that resemble structures with functional roles in related organisms. (eyes of moles, human coccyx, human appendix) - Phylogeny: the relationship by ancestry among groups of organisms using a tree or cladogram.
Identify 4 points of reasoning in Darwin’s...
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