Natural Sciences Outline

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Chapter 8: The Natural Sciences
* Areas of Knowledge

I. Introduction
a. A period of progress: Initiated by the Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century b. Dominant cognitive paradigm- model of knowledge
i. Success of sciences makes it seen as the most important form of knowledge ii. Many attempts made to establish other areas on a more scientific foundation that would mimic the rigor and apparent certainty of subjects iii. Coherence Theory; some argue science as the only road to knowledge c. Weaknesses and Limitations

iv. “Science has proved that “ something or other is the case- 1. Coherence Theory
a. History/Science changes over time Certainty? b. No monopoly of Truth; other ways can be equally valid 2. Dangers said by critics
c. Scientists may be involved with things they may not fully understandAlarming predictions such as nuclear war d. Focus: Nature and Status of knowledge
v. Distinguishing science vs. non-science
vi. Questioning science and values
II. Science and Pseudo- Science
e. Science’ as a stamp of approval of guarantee of quality vii. Can be use to advertise and deceive people
f. ‘Scientific’ proponents
viii. Acupuncture
ix. Astrology
x. Creationism
xi. Crystology
xii. Graphology
xiii. Homeopathy
xiv. Phrenology
3. Importance of being aware: being open-minded and find out more about whether there is truth in them d. Pragmatic Theory
e. Coherence Theory
g. Some people willing to subject their beliefs to proper tests while others are not xv. State beliefs are scientific because someone says so (Pragmatic Theory and role of language) 4. pseudo science- fake science

xvi. Something that is not science does not directly mean its pseudo science ; vice-versa h. The difference between science and pseudo-science
xvii. Main difference – scientific hypothesis are testable compared to pseudo-science xviii. Ways pseudo-scientific hypothesis protects them from being testable 5. Vagueness- Too vague to verify or testify it

6. Ad hoc exceptions – can protect a statement f. Good scientific hypothesis = general in nature and not man exceptions when it meets counter examples (Correspondence Theory) xix. Genuinely scientific statement that is testable 7. Clearly stated and are precise predictions

8. Not many ad hoc exceptions with counter examples III. The scientific method
-A distinctive method separates science from non-science
-Way of thinking about the world
i. Inductivism
xx. Traditional picture of the scientific method with 5 key steps 9. Observation
10. Hypothesis
11. Experiment
12. Law
13. Theory
xxi. Begin with Observing the classifying relevant data xxii. Find a pattern in the datahypothesisTest by experiment 14. Controllability
15. Measurability
16. Repeatability
xxiii. Results confirming hypothesis= scientific law j. An example: The Copernican revolution
xxiv. Observation
xxv. Hypothesis- Copernicus is larger than it seemed xxvi. Law- basis of observation and discoveries Kepler’s laws of planetary motion were made. xxvii. Theory- Newton’s theory of gravity

xxviii. Important things to note
17. Scientific progress need careful observation g. Anomalies- an observation that seems to contradict a generally accepted theory h. Technology can extend observationseasier to test new ideas i. Imaginations- develops new...
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