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GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2011 question paper for the guidance of teachers

9696/11 Paper 1 (Core Geography), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers. Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the examination.

• Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2011 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE AS/A LEVEL – October/November 2011 Section A Hydrology and Fluvial Geomorphology:

Syllabus CODE

Paper 11


(a) Calculate the lag time. 5–7 hours (b) Identify the following features of the hydrograph. (i) A rising limb (ii) B peak discharge (iii) C baseflow [3] [1]

(c) Explain how two of the catchment conditions given in Fig.1 affect the shape of the hydrograph. – – – Clay allows little infiltration as it gets saturated quickly and therefore the more water would form overland flow. The steep sided topography means that water will flow quickly into the channel contributing to the high level of run off. The rounded drainage basin shape means that all the points from the watershed are approximately equidistant from the point where the discharge was recorded. In all cases the effects on the hydrograph are similar i.e. a relatively short lag time, steep rising and recessional limbs and relatively low baseflow. [6] 2 Fig. 2 shows an idealized global pattern of pressure and winds. (a) (i) Identify the pressure area marked as A. Equatorial low or ITCZ (ii) Identify the pressure areas marked as B. Subtropical highs (b) (i) Name the winds marked as C. Trades (ii) Name the winds marked as D. Westerlies [1] [1] [1] [1]

© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 3

Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE AS/A LEVEL – October/November 2011

Syllabus CODE

Paper 11

(c) Explain how the pressure systems develop and how they influence the pattern of global winds. The systems of pressure develop in response to heating of the earth’s surface and atmosphere. The earth is heated at the equator leading to the surface warming the air, which rises giving rise to low pressure. The rising air descends in the subtropics giving rise to high pressure. The surface winds thus blow from high to low returning the air as trade winds. The subtropical high air is an area of wind divergence producing the westerlies flowing polewards meeting the wind from the polar high produced by cooling. Many will explain this in terms of the tri-cell model with diagrams. [6] 3 Fig. 3 is a diagram which relates climate to types of weathering. (a) (i) What type of weathering would be dominant in an area with an annual temperature of 24ºC and mean annual rainfall of 1800mm? (strong) chemical weathering [1]

(ii) Which weathering process would be most dominant in an area with an annual temperature of –12ºC and mean annual rainfall of 600mm? freeze-thaw or frost shattering [1]

(b) In what type of climate would ‘very slight weathering’ occur? Explain why weathering would be limited in such a climate. Hot and cold arid/semi arid (or climatic parameters) (1). Lack of rainfall so minimal chemical weathering; dew may be cited for credit. Thermal fracturing: granular/block disintegration occur but...
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