1. Test Tube2. Boiling Tube3. Beaker
4. Conical Flask5. Test Tube Holder/ Tongs /Clamp Stand
6. Measuring/Graduating7. Funnel8. Pipette Cylinder
9. Spatula10. Tripod 11. Bunsen Burner
12. Glass Bulb13. Burette16. Condenser
Changes of State
Filtering Solutions 03-Nov
The Atomic Structure
Atoms contain electrons which travel along electron shells, surrounding the nucleus that contains nucleons such as protons and neutrons. Electrons, neutrons and protons all make up an atom, they are called sub-atomic particles.
Protons – has a relative charge of 1+ and a relative atomic mass of 1 Neutrons – are neutral, therefore the charge is 0. Also has a R.A.M of 1 Electrons – has a negative charge (1- ), and has a R.A.M of 1/2000
Listed in the periodic table, are elements. All elements have a neutral charge, or the charge always equal 0. This is why the amount of protons and electrons are the same in every element. Also, the relative atomic mass does not include the electrons, because their mass is so small, it barely makes up the atom.
Atomic Number & R.A.M
To find the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons of an element, we use the atomic number and the relative atomic mass (R.A.M.) to work it out.
Protons = 3
Electrons = 3
Neutrons = (7-3) 4
Electron Structures 04-Nov
Number of electrons allowed of main electron shells:
1st Shell – 2 electrons
2nd Shell – 8 electrons
3rd Shell – 8 electrons
4th Shell – 2 electrons
When illustrating electron structures, electrons should always be filled from the innermost electron shell first (closest to the nucleus), moving outwards.
Electrons are arranged in shells around the nucleus of an atom, the innermost electron shell, having the lowest energy level, is filled first with a maximum of 2 atoms. Also, electron structures do not require you to draw the protons and neutrons of the nucleus; instead the element symbol is placed.
The 1st main shell can be filled up to 2 electrons, the 2nd with 8 electrons, the 3rd with 8 electrons, and the 4th with 2 electrons. When all shells are filled with 2, 8, 8, 2 all electron shells are complete.
Calculating the relative atomic mass
Magnesium + Oxygen ( Magnesium Oxide
Mg + O ( MgO
2Mg (s) + O (g) ( 2MgO (s)
The Periodic table is in order of the proton number or atomic number, a pattern which was designed and discovered by a Russian Scientist, Dmitri Mendeleev. The table helps make sense of the different properties of elements and their ions and help predict how they will behave in different situations. The atomic number shows the number of protons in the atom of and element, and the relative atomic mass tells us the comparative measurement of mass of one atom or number of neutrons and protons together of an atom.
Groups & Periods
The numbers listed at the top of the table are called Groups; they show how many electrons are present at the outermost electron shell. There are 8 groups in the table. A group is all the vertical columns of elements, and all the elements in each group have similar properties, they are a chemical family. Periods are the rows going horizontally across...