Stages of Mitosis~
2)Chromosomes make identical copies of themselves.
3)They line up along the centre.
4)They move apart.
5)Two daughter cells form with identical chromosomes to the parent cell.
Homologous chromosomes have the same genes, but each homologue may have the same alleles of some genes and different alleles others.
The cell cycle is tightly controlled. Both during the embryonic development and during the maintenance and repair of the adult body, progressing through the cell cycle is regulated primarily by two interacting processes. (1)Production of, and responses to, growth factors that generally speed up the cell cycle; (2)Intracellular checkpoints that stop the cell cycle if problems such as mutations in the DNA or misalignment of the chromosomes have occurred. Most cancers develop because one of both of these processes goes awry.
Many different molecules control the cell cycle;
Porto-oncogenes:Any gene whose proteins tends to promote mitotic cell division if called a proton-oncogene. The genes for growth factors, grow factor receptors, and some cyclins and Cdks are proton-oncogenes. In most cases, progress through the cell cycle beings when a growth-stimulating protein such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds to a receptor on the surface of a cell. This stimulates the synthesis of cyclins which bind to Cdks and activate them. Thus, these proton-oncogenes are essential to the normal control of the cell cycle. Tumor suppressor genes:The protein products of tumor suppressor genes prevent...