Mutation

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1. Spontaneous Mutation -> it is a mutation that arises naturally and not as a result of exposure to mutagens. It arises from a variety of sources which may include: errors in DNA replication, spontaneous lesions, and transposable genetic elements.

Non-spontaneous/ Induced Mutation -> a mutation that is produced by treatment with a physical or chemical agent that affects the DNA molecules of a living organism. It may arise in a variety of ways such as exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation or chemical mutagens. 2. Somatic Mutation -> it is an acquired or a genetic mutation that occurs in a somatic cell after conception Somatic mutation can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells and is not passed on to children. This mutation can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases.

Gametic Mutation -> it is the mutation in the sex cells. In gametic mutation, the organism which contains the mutation may not be affected, but it may or will be passed to its offspring, where the mutation might be, or can be expressed. 3. A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene which is usually caused by copying errors during replication that further leads to base substitution or deletion of one or more base pairs. Gene mutations can be inherited from a parent or acquired during a person’s lifetime.

4. Chromosomal mutation is also referred to as chromosomal rearrangement. It is an event that changes genetic structure. This mutation can involve deletions, insertions, or inversions of sections of DNA. In some cases, deleted sections may attach to other chromosomes, disrupting both the chromosomes that lose the DNA and the one that gains it.
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